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Population UNIT II CHAPTER 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Population UNIT II CHAPTER 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Population UNIT II CHAPTER 2

2 PEEPS MDC = less children then our parents and grand parents had
LDC = much higher than most MDCs providing food, shelter, clothing, medical aide is difficult bc of the rapid growth Study of pop. helps us understand: Where and why a regions pop. Is distributed as it is

3 Importance of pop More people alive now than ever
2nd half of 20th century increased faster than ever (why?) Virtually all global pop. Growth is concentrated in LDCs Demography-study of pop. Characteristics how ppl are distributed spatially by age, gender, occupation, fertility, health etc.

4 2 questions? WHERE: people are found across E and places where pop. Is growing WHY: pop. Is growing at dif rates in dif places Overpopulation: pop. Exceeds the environments capacity to support an acceptable standard of living

Humans not evenly distributed Concentration Regions clustered/sparse Density: people & resources available

2/3 of humans are clustered in 4 regions: East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Western Europe Clustering of world pop. can be displayed on a cartogram Depicts size of country according to pop. rather than land area global patterns heavily influenced by Asia and Europe why?

7 World Population Cartogram
Fig. 2-1: This cartogram displays countries by the size of their population rather than their land area. (Only countries with 50 million or more people are named.)

8 World Population Distribution & Climate Zones
Fig. 2-2: World population is unevenly distributed across the earth’s surface. Climate is one factor that affects population density.

4 regions have similarities (name some) live near an ocean or river w/ access to ocean 2/3 world pop. Live w/in 300 miles of ocean 4/5 live w/in 500 miles Generally low lying areas, fertile soil, temperate climate

10 EAST ASIA 1/5 world pop. 5/6 of people living here are in Peoples Republic of China (most pop. Count) 2/3 live in rural areas as farmers Japan & South Korea=1/3 live in Tokyo, Osaka, and Seoul ¾ live in urban areas and work in industry

11 SOUTH ASIA 1/5 world pop. India (2nd pop. Country) has ¾ SA pop.
Most ppl live along plains of Indus and Ganges rivers or on coastlines of Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal Most are farmers in rural areas, only ¼ live in urban areas

12 SOUTHEAST ASIA Half billion people on series of islands
Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Papua New Guinea, and Philippines Java=4th most populous country (100+mil) Most people working as farmers The 3 Asian pop. Concentrations comprise more than half the worlds pop. But live on less than 10% of the earths land area

13 Europe Including all of Europe = 3rd largest pop. Cluster
4 dozen countries =ing 1/9th world pop. ¾ of Europeans live in cities < 20% are farmers Import most food and other resources incentive to colonize

Not many people live in too wet, dry, cold, or mountainous regions Ecumene: portion of E’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement Approx. ¾ world pop. Live on 5% E’s surface

15 Expansion of the Ecumene 5000 BC - AD 1900
Fig. 2-3: The ecumene, or the portion of the earth with permanent human settlement, has expanded to cover most of the world’s land area.

DRY LANDS: 20% E surface WET LANDS: rain & heat rapidly depletes nutrients in soil COLD LANDS: permafrost HIGH LANDS: sparsely settled, exceptions(Mexico City)

Arithmetic: # of people / total land area U.S.=80 ppl per square mile, Manhattan=68,000 PSM, Bangladesh=2,700 ppl Answers “where” question

18 Arithmetic Population Density
Fig. 2-4: Arithmetic population density is the number of people per total land area. The highest densities are found in parts of Asia and Europe.

Physiological density: # of ppl supported by a unit area of arable land The ^ the physiological density the > pressure that ppl may place on land to produce enough food Comparing arithmetic and physiological density helps understand the capacity of land to yield enough food for the amount of people

20 Physiological Density
Fig. 2-5: Physiological density is the number of people per arable land area. This is a good measure of the relation between population and agricultural resources in a society.

Agricultural density: ratio of # of farmers to the amount of arable land MDCs have lower agricultural densities (Why?) more technology and $ to work in other industries

CBR: # of births a year per 1,000 ppl alive (CBR 20 =?) CDR: # of deaths a year per 1,000 ppl alive NIR : % pop. Grows in a year. Subtract CDR from CBR 80M ppl added to world pop. annually Declining from 87m in 1989

23 World Population Growth 1950 - 2005
Fig. 2-6: Total world population increased from 2.5 to over 6 billion in slightly over 50 years. The natural increase rate peaked in the early 1960s and has declined since, but the number of people added each year did not peak until 1990.

24 Natural Increase Rates
Fig. 2-7: The natural increase rate (NIR) is the percentage growth or decline in the population of a country per year (not including net migration). Countries in Africa and Southwest Asia have the highest current rates, while Russia and some European countries have negative rates.

25 Crude Birth Rates Fig. 2-8: The crude birth rate (CBR) is the total number of births in a country per 1000 population per year. The lowest rates are in Europe, and the highest rates are in Africa and several Asian countries.

26 fertility TFR: # of births in a society.. Ave # of births a woman will have 15-49 CBR pictures society as a whole in a given year TFR attempts to predict the future behavior of women in a world of rapid cultural change

27 Total Fertility Rates Fig. 2-9: The Total fertility rate (TFR) is the number of children an average woman in a society will have through her childbearing years. The lowest rates are in Europe, and the highest are in Africa and parts of the Middle East.

28 Mortality IMR: # of deaths of infants under 1 yo. Compared to total live births IMR reflects a countries health-care system Life expectancy: # of years you can expect to live

29 Infant Mortality Rates
Fig. 2-10: The infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths per 1000 live births per year. The highest infant mortality rates are found in some of the poorest countries of Africa and Asia.

30 Life Expectancy at birth
Fig. 2-11: Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live. The highest life expectancies are generally in the wealthiest countries, and the lowest in the poorest countries.

31 Crude Death Rates Fig. 2-12: The crude death rate (CDR) is the total number of deaths in a country per 1000 population per year. Because wealthy countries are in a late stage of the Demographic Transition, they often have a higher CDR than poorer countries.

THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION Demographic Transition: change in society’s pop. from a condition of high CBR and low rate of NIR to a condition of low CBR and CDR, low rate of NIR and a higher pop. Total Several stages, everyone is in one, and you cant revert stages

33 Demographic transition: stage 1
Stage 1: Low Growth practically 0 NIR due to CBR and CDR dependent on hunting/gathering agricultural evolution: when humans first domesticated plants and animals (unpredictable outcomes)

34 The Demographic Transition
Fig. 2-13: The demographic transition consists of four stages, which move from high birth and death rates, to declines first in death rates then in birth rates, and finally to a stage of low birth and death rates. Population growth is most rapid in the second stage.

35 Demographic transition: stage 2
Stage 2: High Growth 10,000 years after agricultural revolution…advanced methods low CDR and high CBR = high NIR industrial evolution (transformed production/delivering of goods) wealth produced used to improve sanitation and personal hygiene sewers, water purification, food protected medical evolution (advances in vaccines and health care)

36 The Demographic Transition
Fig. 2-13: The demographic transition consists of four stages, which move from high birth and death rates, to declines first in death rates then in birth rates, and finally to a stage of low birth and death rates. Population growth is most rapid in the second stage.

37 Demographic transition: Stage 3
Stage 3: Moderate Growth CBR drops sharply CDR falls much slower than in stage 2 Pop. Still growing bc CBR is still > CDR People decide to have fewer children City dwellers, office/shop/factory workers

38 The Demographic Transition
Fig. 2-13: The demographic transition consists of four stages, which move from high birth and death rates, to declines first in death rates then in birth rates, and finally to a stage of low birth and death rates. Population growth is most rapid in the second stage.

39 Demographic transition: Stage 4
Stage 4: Low Growth CBR = CDR, NIR approaches 0 ZPG: decline of the total fertility rate to the point where natural increase rate = 0 Women entering labor force rather than homemakers Birth Control

40 The Demographic Transition
Fig. 2-13: The demographic transition consists of four stages, which move from high birth and death rates, to declines first in death rates then in birth rates, and finally to a stage of low birth and death rates. Population growth is most rapid in the second stage.

41 World Population & Growth Rates, 400,000 BC - AD 2000

42 POPULATION PYRAMIDS Pop. Influenced by demographic transition in 2 ways % of age pop. In each age group distribution of males and females population pyramid: displays age and gender groups on a bar graph 5 year age groups males on the left, females on the right shape of pyramid primarily determined by the CBR stage 2 looks like pyramid, stage 4 looks more like a rectangle

43 AGE distribution Dependency ratio: # of ppl too young or old to work, compared to # of who can more dependents means what? 0-14, 15-64, 65-+ more than ¼ gov’t spending goes to SS

44 Percent of Population under 15
Fig. 2-15: About one-third of world population is under 15, but the percentage by country varies from over 40% in most of Africa and some Asian countries, to under 20% in much of Europe.

45 SEX ratio Sex ratio: # of males per 100 females U.S./Europe 95:100,
women out # men at 40yo…58% of pop. 65+ Poorer countries, men out # women

46 Population Pyramids in U.S. cities
Fig. 2-16: Population pyramids can vary greatly with different fertility rates (Laredo vs. Honolulu), or among military bases (Unalaska), college towns (Lawrence), and retirement communities (Naples).

47 Moderate Growth in Chile
Fig. 2-18: Chile entered stage 2 of the demographic transition in the 1930s, and it entered stage 3 in the 1960s.

48 Moderate Growth in Chile
Fig. 2-18: Chile entered stage 2 of the demographic transition in the 1930s, and it entered stage 3 in the 1960s.

49 Low Growth in Denmark Fig. 2-19: Denmark has been in stage 4 of the demographic transition since the 1970s, with little population growth since then. Its population pyramid shows increasing numbers of elderly and few children.

Two big factors: drop in death rate bc of technological innovation everywhere and drop in birth rate due to changing social customs Industrial Evolution (remember?) European and American innovation throughout the world Sri Lanka: DDT CDR reduced by nearly 1 ½ in one year

51 Why might the world face an overpopulation problem?
MALTHUS ON OVERPOPULATION Thomas Malthus ( ) economist Argued our rate of pop. increase would outrun food supplies Predicted this after England was first country to enter Stage 2 Why would they be the first? World would need “moral restraint” or disease, famine, war or other disasters to produce high CDRs

Neo-Malthusians see his thesis more frightening today than 200 years ago Didn’t account for LDC  MDC (technological advancements) More food but even more people We’re outpacing resources; energy, food, water, clean air… Conflict?

53 MALTHUS’S CRITICS Heavily criticized for being pessimistic
Fixed resources rather than expanding (possiblism?) Esther Boserup, Julian Simon & Simon Kuznets argue: More brains = more ideas More ppl = > demand for goods = more jobs Friedrich Engels: enough food to eliminate world hunger Workers don’t control distribution nor get paid sufficient wages to purchase it

World food production has grown faster than NIR since 1950 Why? Population growing slower the past quarter cent. Than the previous half cent NIR declined from 1.8 to 1.3 around the world 2.1 to 1.6 in LDCs .5 to .1 in MDCs

55 Food & Population, 1950-2000 Malthus vs. Actual Trends
Fig. 2-20: Malthus predicted population would grow faster than food production, but food production actually expanded faster than population in the 2nd half of the 20th century.

56 DECLINING BIRTH RATES NIR declines for 2 reasons: which are?
Don’t want an increase in CDR…the alternative? CBR declined rapidly since 1990 from across the world Due to economic development distribution of contraceptives

57 Crude Birth Rate Decline, 1980-2005
Fig. 2-21: Crude birth rates declined in most countries during the 1980s and 1990s (though the absolute number of births per year increased from about 120 to 130 million).

58 DECLINING BIRTH RATES Economic Development
Emphasizing improving local economic conditions More $ = better education and health-care programs Distribution of Contraceptives Much quicker than economic development Africa and SE Asia have low contraceptive use Economic, religion, education, and status of women

59 Women Using Family Planning

60 Family Planning Methods used in three countries

61 World health threats Epidemiological transition: distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition Epidemiological: branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people

62 Epidemiological transition Possible stage 5
Reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases Reasons for Stage 5 Evolution (diseases evolve and form new strains) Poverty (TB, $$$ treatment) Improved travel (Bird flu)

63 Tuberculosis Death Rates
Fig. 2-24: The tuberculosis death rate is good indicator of a country’s ability to invest in health care. TB is still one of the world’s largest infectious disease killers.

64 Avian Flu, Fig. 2-25: The first cases of avian flu in this outbreak were reported in Southeast Asia.

65 HIV/AIDS Prevalence Rates, 2005
Fig. 2-26: The highest HIV infection rates are in sub-Saharan Africa. India and China have large numbers of cases, but lower infection rates at present.

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