Presentation on theme: "Hofstede’s Dimensions:Review"— Presentation transcript:
1 Hofstede’s Dimensions:Review Power DistanceUncertainty AvoidanceIndividualism/ CollectivismMasculinity/FemininityThis link will show you the values reached for 56 different countries as well as allowing you to compare any 2 countries.
2 Attitudinal Dimensions of Culture Work value and attitude similaritiesSmallest space analysis (SSA) yields clusters of countries similar to each otherAnglo-American (U.S., U.K., Australia)Nordic (Norway, Finland, Denmark)South American (Venezuela, Mexico, Chile)Latin European (France, Belgium)Germanic (Germany, Austria, Switzerland)Other researchers have found other clusters, depending on variables used
3 Synthesis of Country Clusters Adapted from Figure 4–8: A Synthesis of Country Clusters
4 Ronen-Shenker quote:As multinational companies increase their direct investment overseas, especially in less developed and consequently less studied areas, they will require more information concerning their local employees in order to implement effective types of interactions between the organization and the host country. The knowledge acquired thus far can help one to understand better the work values and attitudes of employees throughout the world. America theories work very well for Western nations. Are they equally applicable in non-Western countries? Clearly, more cluster research is called for, including research in countries from all parts of the globe.
5 1/Centralized vs. Decentralized Decision Making 2/Safety vs. Risk GROUP EXERCISEGo back to page 95 in your textbook.Which of Hofstede’s dimensions of culture would you use to explain how the management approaches listed were affected by culture?1/Centralized vs. Decentralized Decision Making2/Safety vs. Risk3/Individual vs.. Group Reward4/Informal vs.. Formal Procedures5/High vs.. Low Organizational Loyalty6/Cooperation vs.. Competition7/Short-term vs.. Long-term Horizons8/Stability vs. Innovation
6 Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions VS.UniversalismParticularismUniversalism: belief that ideas and practices can be applied everywhere in the world without modificationIn countries with high universalism, focus is more on formal rules, business contracts are adhered to closely, people believe “a deal is a deal”Includes Canada, U.S., Germany, U.K., Netherlands, France, Japan, Singapore, Thailand, and Hong Kong.
7 Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions VS.UniversalismParticularismParticularism: belief that circumstances dictate how ideas and practices should be applied and something cannot be done the same everywhereIn countries with high particularism, legal contracts often modified, well-acquainted people often change the way in which deals are executedIncludes China and South Korea
8 Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions VS.IndividualismCommunitarianismIndividualism: people regard themselves as individualsIn countries high on individualism, people stress personal and individual matters, and are more likely to make negotiated decisions on the spot by a representative, achieve things alone and assume great personal responsibilityIncludes Canada, Thailand, U.K., U.S., Netherlands, France, Japan, China, Singapore, and Hong Kong
9 Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions VS.IndividualismCommunitarianismCommunitarianism: people regard themselves as part of a groupIn countries high on communitarianism, people value group-related issues, refer decisions to committees, achieve things in groups and jointly assume responsibilityIncludes Malaysia and Korea
10 Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions VS.NeutralEmotionalNeutral: culture in which emotions are held inIn high neutral culture countries, people try not to show their feelings, act stoically and maintain their composureIncludes Japan and the U.K.Emotional: culture in which emotions are expressed openly and naturallyIn high emotional culture countries, people smile a great deal, talk loudly when excited and greet each other with enthusiasmIncludes Mexico, the Netherlands and Switzerland
11 Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions VS.SpecificDiffuseSpecific culture: individuals have a large public space shared with others and a small private space they guard closely and share only with close friends and associatesIn high specific cultures, people are more open and extroverted, and there is a strong separation of work and private lifeIncludes Austria, U.K., U.S. and Switzerland
12 Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions VS.SpecificDiffuseDiffuse culture: public and private space are similar in size, individuals guard public space carefully because it is shared with private spaceIn high diffuse cultures, people often appear to be indirect and introverted, and work and private life often are closely linkedIncludes Venezuela, China, and Spain
13 Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions VS.AchievementAscriptionAchievement culture: status is accorded based on how well people perform their functionsIncludes Austria, U.S., Switzerland and the U.K.Ascription culture: status is based on who or what a person isIncludes Venezuela, Indonesia, and China
14 Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions TimeSequential approachPeople do only one activity at a time, keep appointments strictly, prefer to follow plans as laid out (United States)Synchronous approachPeople tend to multi-task, view appointments as approximate, schedules are seen as subordinate to relationships (Mexico/Middle East)
15 Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions The EnvironmentInner-directed: people believe in controlling outcomesIncludes U.S., Switzerland, Australia, Belgium, Indonesia, Hong Kong, Greece, Singapore, and JapanOuter-directed: people believe on letting things take their own courseIncludes China and many other Asian countries