4 Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Individualism: People look after selves and immediate family onlyHigh individualism countries: wealthier, protestant work ethic, greater individual initiative, promotions based on market value (e.g., U.S., Canada, Sweden)High collectivism countries: poorer, less support of Protestant work ethic, less individual initiative, promotions based on seniority (e.g., Indonesia, Pakistan)
8 Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Power distance: Less powerful members accept that power is distributed unequallyHigh power distance countries: people blindly obey superiors; centralized, tall structures (e.g., Mexico, South Korea, India)Low power distance countries: flatter, decentralized structures, smaller ratio of supervisor to employee (e.g., Austria, Finland, Ireland)
10 Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Uncertainty avoidance: people feel threatened by ambiguous situations; create beliefs/institutions to avoid such situationsHigh uncertainty avoidance countries: high need for security, strong belief in experts and their knowledge; structure organizational activities, more written rules, less managerial risk taking (e.g., Germany, Japan, Spain)Low uncertainty avoidance countries: people more willing to accept risks of the unknown, less structured organizational activities, fewer written rules, more managerial risk taking, higher employee turnover, more ambitious employees (e.g., Denmark and Great Britain)
14 Limitation of Hofstede’s Dimensions Missing countriesEstimates valuesIgnores differences within clusters
15 Trompenaars’s Alternative Dimensions Focus on values and relationshipsSurvey of15,000 managersOver 10-year periodFrom 28 countriesBipolar cultural dimensions
16 Trompenaars’s Alternative Dimensions (cont’d) Outer-directed—Inner-directedUniversalism—ParticularismNeutral—EmotionalSpecific—DiffuseAchievement—AscriptionIndividualism—Communitarianism
17 Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions Universalism vs. ParticularismUniversalism: ideas/practices can be applied everywhereHigh universalism countries: formal rules, close adhere to business contracts (e.g., Canada, U.S., Netherlands, Hong Kong)Particularism: circumstances dictate how ideas/practices apply; high particularism countries often modify contracts (e.g., China, South Korea)
18 Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions Individualism vs. CommunitarianismIndividualism: people as individualsCountries with high individualism: stress personal and individual matters; assume great personal responsibility (e.g., Canada, Thailand, U.S., Japan)Communitarianism: people regard selves as part of groupValue group-related issues; committee decisions; joint responsibility (e.g., Malaysia, Korea)
19 Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions Neutral vs. EmotionalNeutral: culture in which emotions not shownHigh neutral countries, people act stoically and maintain composure (e.g., Japan and U.K.)Emotional: Emotions are expressed openly and naturallyHigh emotion cultures: people smile a lot, talk loudly, greet each other with enthusiasm (e.g., Mexico, Netherlands, Switzerland)
20 Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions Specific vs. DiffuseSpecific: large public space shared with others and small private space guarded closelyHigh specific cultures: people open, extroverted; strong separation work and personal life (e.g., Austria, U.K., U.S.)Diffuse: public and private spaces similar size, public space guarded because shared with private space; people indirect and introverted, work/private life closely linked (e.g., Venezuela, China, Spain)
21 Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions Achievement vs. AscriptionAchievement culture: status based on how well perform functions (Austria, Switzerland, U.S.)Ascription culture: status based on who or what person is (e.g., Venezuela, China, Indonesia)
22 Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions TimeSequential: only one activity at a time; appointments kept strictly, follow plans as laid out (U.S.)Synchronous: multi-task, appointments are approximate, schedules subordinate to relationships (e.g., France, Mexico)Present vs. Future:Future more important (Italy, U.S., Germany)Present more important (Venezuela, IndonesiaAll 3 time periods equally important (France, Belgium
23 Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions The EnvironmentInner-directed: people believe in control of outcomes (U.S., Switzerland, Greece, Japan)Outer-directed: people believe in letting things take own course (China, many other Asian countries)
24 Examples http://www.uni-hildesheim.de/interculturalfilm/index.php Lost in TranslationCharlotte calls home – individualism/collectivismcultural dimensions: individualism/collectivismtiming: 00:12:46 – 00:13:58Japanese karaoketiming: 00:46:35 – 00:49:45
25 The talk showcultural dimensions: communication style: high/low contexttiming: 01:14:48 – 01:16:02
26 Cultural dimensions and Turkey Power distanceTurkey scores high on this dimension (score of 66) which means that the following characterizes the Turkish style: Dependent, hierarchical, superiors often inaccessible and the ideal boss is a father figure.
27 IndividualismTurkey, with a score of 37 is a collectivistic society. This means that the “We” is important, people belong to in-groups (families, clans or organisations) who look after each other in exchange for loyalty.
28 Masculinity / Femininity Turkey scores 45 and is in the “middle” of the scale but more on the feminine side. This means that the softer aspects of culture such as leveling with others, consensus, sympathy for the underdog are valued and encouraged.
29 Uncertainty avoidance Turkey scores 85 on this dimension and thus there is a huge need for laws and rules. In order to minimize anxiety, people make use of a lot of rituals.For foreigners they might seem religious, with the many references to “Allah”, but often they are just traditional social patterns, used in specific situations to ease tension.
30 Example 2: coca cola ad http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zdSisyamDSc Power distanceFeminityCollectivismUncertainty avoidance
31 The influence of cultural values in advertising: Examples from China and the United States