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Intercultural Management Effective Communication in a Global Environment.

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Presentation on theme: "Intercultural Management Effective Communication in a Global Environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Intercultural Management Effective Communication in a Global Environment

2 Global Business

3 Intercultural Myths The Global Village Myth: the world is homogeneous; Universality Myth: underneath our differences, we are all really the same.

4 Can Most People be trusted? United States 55% United Kingdom 49% Mexico 30% West Germany 19% Italy 1%

5 Culture Influences Values and Attitudes Values and Attitudes influence Business Behavior

6 What is culture Observable behaviour Values and assumptions

7 Layers of culture Language, food, dress religion, buildings, fashion, art Right or wrong Good or Bad Assumptions about existence

8 Levels of uniqueness in mental programming (Hosfstede) Personality Culture Human nature Specific to individual Inherited and learned Specific to group or category Learned Universal Inherited

9 Cultural differences Type of culture How we relate to people How we relate to time

10 Low context High Context

11 High-Context Cultures No clear separation of business and private life Long lasting relationships Implicit communication Loyalty to people of authority Spoken agreements Outsiders do not gain entry easily Negotiations slow and ritualistic

12 Low Context Business is separate to private life Relationships are short in duration (functional) Explicit communication Authority is diffused Written agreements supported by law Outsiders are encouraged to join inner circle Negotiations structured with participant roles clearly defined


14 Lewin’s Circles PRIVATE PUBLIC G- type high context Europe PRIVATE G- type high context China Japan PUBLIC

15 Lewin’s Circles Continued PUBLIC PRIVATE Car Chambers Tennis Club Work Choir Fridge U-Type Low Context

16 Lewin’s Circles Continued PUBLIC PRIVATE Chambers Tennis Club Work Choir U-Type Low Context Europe

17 Relationship with people Individualism Communitarian Neutral Emotional Universalism Particularism Achievement Ascription

18 Individuals Use of the “I” form in communication Instant decision making by representatives Achievement is personal Individual assumes responsibility for actions Job Mobility and staff turnover high Pay for performance and individual assessment accepted Risk taking admired (link to entrepreneurship)

19 Communitarians Risk avoidant Use of the “we” form Decisions referred back by delegates to organisations Achievement is group based and joint responsibility is assumed for actions Loyalty to organisation important Group incentives and team work expected

20 Individualism Encourages individual freedom and responsibility However….. Encourages individual freedom and responsibility However….. We don’t want to degenerate Into self-centredness, so we Must…… Communitarianism Encourage individuals to Work for consensus in the interest Of the group although…… We need to avoid Conformism and slow Decision making, so we must…. We need to avoid Conformism and slow Decision making, so we must….

21 Verbal Communication Low-ContextA B High-ContextA B OrientalA B

22 Tone Of Voice Low-Context High-Context Oriental

23 Neutral Cultures Hide emotions Cool and controlled behaviour is admired Physical contact and strong expression of body language is taboo Tension and stress is often seen in body language Emotions that are controlled may sometimes explode

24 Affective Cultures Thoughts and feelings are expressed verbally and non-verbally Expression of disagreement is uninhibited Lively discussion with lots of emotion admired Frequent physical contact and open expression of body language permissible

25 Universalist Rules, regulations and procedures very important Agreement is usually supported by legal contract There is the law, and that is that A person’s trustworthiness is based on honouring their word or contract

26 Particularist Relationships more important than rules Legal contracts and be easily modified The law is relative A person’s trustworthiness is based on whether they respond to changing circumstances

27 Achievement Titles are only used when relevant Respect for hierarchy is based on effectiveness and ability of jobholder Senior managers may be of varying age and gender Senior managers hold their position based on competence and qualifications Low power distance

28 Ascription Extensive power distance Titles used extensively to indicate status in organisation Respect for hierarchy is required to demonstrate commitment to the organisation Senior managers are usually male, middle-aged and qualified by background, formal qualifications and connections

29 Time Sequentially Synchronically Past Present Future

30 Nonverbal Sensitivity Greetings Eye Contact Space Touch Posture Facial expressions Timing Silence Gestures

31 Resolution RespectKnowledge Tolerance Understanding Cooperation

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