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©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 6: Learning Karen Huffman, Palomar College

2 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Lecture Overview Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Cognitive-Social Learning Cognitive-Social Learning The Biology of Learning Using Conditioning and Learning Principles Using Conditioning and Learning Principles

3 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Introductory Definitions Learning (relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes resulting from practice or experience) Conditioning (process of learning associations between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses)

4 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Classical Conditioning Pavlov’s Contribution Classical Conditioning: learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus (NS) becomes paired (associated) with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to elicit a conditioned response (CR)

5 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Pavlov’s Original Experiment

6 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Classical Conditioning--Key Terms Neutral Stimulus (NS): stimulus that, before conditioning, doesn’t naturally bring about the response of interest Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): stimulus that elicits an UCR occurring without previous conditioning Unconditioned Response (UCR): unlearned reaction to an UCS occurring without prior conditioning

7 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Classical Conditioning--Key Terms (Continued) Conditioned Stimulus (CS): previously NS that, through repeated pairings with an UCS, now causes a CR Conditioned Response (CR): learned reaction to a CS occurring because of previous repeated pairings with an UCS

8 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

9 Why Study Psychology? It Helps You Understand Popular Cartoons!

10 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Classical Conditioning (Continued)

11 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Classical Conditioning (Continued) Conditioned Emotional Response (CER): Watson demonstrated how emotions can be classically conditioned to a previously neutral stimulus (NS). John B. Watson

12 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Watson and Rayner Created a Fear of Rats (a CER) in Little Albert

13 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Classical Conditioning’s Basic Principles Stimulus Generalization: learned response to stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimuli (CS) ALL ALL Snakes bite!

14 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Classical Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued) Stimulus Discrimination: learned response to a specific stimulus, but not to other, similar stimuli some Now I know that some snakes are nice!

15 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Extinction: gradual weakening or suppression of a previously conditioned response (CR) Spontaneous Recovery: reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response (CR)

16 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Higher-Order Conditioning: neutral stimulus (NS) becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) through repeated pairings with a previously conditioned stimulus (CS) Classical Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued)

17 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Classical Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued) Higher-Order Conditioning

18 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning: learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences

19 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Operant Conditioning (Continued) Thorndike’s Contribution Law of Effect: the probability of an action being repeated is strengthened when followed by a pleasant or satisfying consequence

20 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Operant Conditioning (Continued) Skinner’s Contribution Conducted systematic research using a Skinner box

21 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles Reinforcement: strengthening a response

22 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued) unlearned Primary Reinforcers: normally satisfy an unlearned biological need (e.g., food) learned Secondary Reinforcers: learned value (e.g., money, praise)

23 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued) Positive Reinforcement: adding (or presenting) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur (e.g., praise)

24 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued) Negative Reinforcement: taking away (or removing) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur (e.g., headache removed after taking an aspirin)

25 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued)

26 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles: Four Partial Schedules of Reinforcement 1. Fixed Ratio (FR): reinforcement occurs after a predetermined set of responses; the ratio (number or amount) is fixed 2.Variable Ratio (VR): reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the ratio (number or amount) varies

27 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) 3. Fixed Interval (FI): reinforcement occurs after a predetermined time has elapsed; the interval (time) is fixed 4.Variable Interval (VI): reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the interval (time) varies Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles: Four Partial Schedules (Continued)

28 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles: Four Partial Schedules (Continued)

29 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles: Four Partial Schedules (Continued) If you want to increase the overall number of responses, which schedule of reinforcement should you choose?

30 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued) Shaping: reinforcement is delivered for successive approximations of the desired response

31 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued) Punishment: weakening a response

32 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued) Positive Punishment: adding (or presenting) a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur (e.g., shouting)

33 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles (Continued) Negative Punishment: taking away (or removing) a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur (e.g., restriction)

34 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) ??? ?????? ???

35 Side Effects of Punishment Judging by this woman’s expression, is she experiencing an example of increased aggression, passive aggressiveness, avoidance behavior, modeling, temporary suppression, or learned helplessness?

36 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Cognitive-Social Learning Cognitive-Social Theory: emphasizes the roles of thinking and social learning in behavior

37 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Cognitive-Social Learning (Continued) Kohler’s chimps demonstrated insight learning (sudden understanding of a problem that implies the solution).

38 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Cognitive-Social Learning (Continued) Tolman’s rats built a cognitive map (a mental image of a three- dimensional space). They also displayed latent learning (hidden learning that exists without behavioral signs).

39 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Cognitive-Social Learning (Continued) Observational Learning: learning new behaviors or information by watching others Bandura's Famous Bobo Doll study

40 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Observational Learning and Modeling Note the increasing bicep circumference of these G.I. Joe action figures. What are the effects of this type of modeling?

41 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Cognitive-Social Learning (Continued) Observational Learning involves four processes: 1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Motor Reproduction 4. Reinforcement

42 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) The Biology of Learning: Neuroscience and Learning When we learn something, we experience the creation of new synaptic connections and alterations in many brain structures.

43 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) The Biology of Learning: Evolution and Learning Classical Conditioning  Taste Aversion: classically conditioned negative associations of food to illness

44 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) The Biology of Learning: Evolution and Learning (Continued) Biological Preparedness: built-in (innate) readiness to form associations between certain stimuli and responses Instinctive Drift: conditioned responses shift (or drift) back toward innate response pattern

45 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Using Conditioning and Learning Principles Classical Conditioning can be seen in: Marketing Prejudice Medical Treatments Phobias

46 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

47 Using Conditioning and Learning Principles (Continued) Operant Conditioning can be seen in: Prejudice Biofeedback Superstitions

48 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Using Conditioning and Learning Principles (Continued) Cognitive-Social Theory can be seen in: Prejudice Media Influences


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