Motivation why With regards to motivation, psychologists try to answer why we do what we do
Need v. Drive What is the difference? A need is something we lack. i.e. when we lack food, we need it to survive A drive is the force that motivates us to act The need become before the drive We need food and we are driven by hunger
Why are we motivated? Motivation causes us to behave they way we do Theories of Motivation: –Instinct Theory –Drive-reduction Theory –Humanistic Theory –Socioculture Theory
Instinct Theory Instincts are behaviors we acquire automatically, regardless of socialization Motivation comes from within and is “instinctual” Nature or nurture? Today, most psychologists believe that our motives are not ONLY influenced by instincts
Drive-reduction Theory People do things to reduce tension and drive –We eat to reduce the hunger drive Homeostasis– the tendency to maintain a state of equilibrium within the body Usually only describes biological drives
Humanistic Theory Instinct theory and drive theory suggest that behavior is strictly mechanical and directed at surviving (and surviving tension) Humanistic theory believes that people are motivated by personal growth and fulfillment Abraham Maslow was a pioneer in humanistic theory
Maslow Hierarchy of Need’s Food, water, warmth, rest (sleep) Protection from danger, security, stability Love, acceptance, belonging Achievement, recognition, respect of others Fulfillment of potential, personal growth
Sociocultural Theory We have basic inbreed needs like Instinct Theory and Drive-reduction Theory suggest But we are also driven or motivated by cultural influences –Your preferences in food and the cravings that come from that can be culturally driven –Example?
Psychological Needs We are motivated to reduce tension and external stimulation But we can also be motivated to increase stimulation –Sensory deprivation can be bad for a person Human beings need stimulation at times Ever heard an adult say that he or she is not being “mentally stimulated” or “intellectually challenged” at his or her job?
Psychological Needs Some people are more motivated than others –“achievement motivation” –People with high achievement motivation will likely do better in school or work –But what makes them want to achieve more? Extrinsic rewards/motives: good grades, money, etc. Intrinsic reward/motives: self-satisfaction