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The Neural Control of Behavior

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Presentation on theme: "The Neural Control of Behavior"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Neural Control of Behavior
Chapter 5 On many slides, there are questions in the right hand column to enhance student learning. Ask these questions during class, or have students make note of them to answer later. Gray, Psychology, 6e Worth Publishers © 2010

2 Quick Question Do you think your brain today is the same as it was when you were born? Why or why not? Give students a few minutes to come up with responses, and have them record those responses in their notes for later. Let them know these examples will be revisited or else they might spend the rest of the lecture trying to figure out why they did this exercise.

3 Types of Neurons Sensory neurons Motor neurons Interneurons
Information from sensory organs Motor neurons Information from CNS to muscles/glands Interneurons In the CNS, information from one neuron to another

4 Parts of the Neuron Cell body Axon Dendrites Keeps the cell alive
Receive messages Axon Sends messages Ends in the axon terminal May have myelin sheath

5 Action Potential All-or-none firing response
Can change the rate of impulses to increase strength Depolarization and repolarization

6 Synaptic Transmission
Neurotransmitters cross the synaptic gap Key and lock Excitatory vs. inhibitory synapse

7 Studying the Human Brain
Observing localized brain damage Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) Electroencephalogram (EEG) Positron emission tomography (PET) Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

8 Studying the Non-Human Brain
Brain lesions Stimulation Electrical recording Why do you think these methods are usually reserved for non-human animals?

9 Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nervous Systems
Fight or flight Parasympathetic nervous system Growth promoting, energy saving

10 Spinal Cord Pathway to the brain Organizes simple reflexes
Pattern Generation

11 Brainstem Medulla Pons Midbrain Postural reflexes Vital reflexes
Species-typical movement patterns

12 Thalamus Relays sensory and motor signals Arousal of the brain
Did you know that Michael J. Fox had surgery on his thalamus to help with his symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease?

13 Cerebellum and Basil Ganglia
Coordinate skilled movements Feedback Feed-forward

14 Limbic System Amygdala Hippocampus
Regulation of basic drives and emotions Hippocampus Encoding certain memories

15 Hypothalmus Regulates the internal environment of the body
Influences the autonomic nervous system Controls the release of certain hormones Affects certain drive states, such as hunger and thirst Helps regulate emotional states, such as fear and anger

16 Cerebral Cortex Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Temporal lobe
Occipital lobe

17 Hemispheric Specialization
Left Hemisphere Language Right Hemisphere Non-verbal, visuospatial information

18 Broca’s Area and Wernicke’s Area
Broca’s aphasia Wernicke’s area Wernicke’s aphasia

19 Experience and the Brain
If you use it, it will grow Neurons that fire together wire together Hebbian synapse Long-term potentiation

20 Hormones and the Brain Hormones vs. neurotransmitters Neurohormones
Snail mail vs. Neurohormones

21 Drugs and the Brain Drugs vs. hormones Drugs and synaptic transmission
Do you know anyone who takes an antidepressant medication such as Zoloft or Prozac? These drugs block the re-uptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin

22 Assessment Take a minute to right down as many words as you can remember that relate to neurons without looking at your notes. Students can write down their answers to hand in, either with or without their names, or they can discuss their answers aloud.

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