2 Quick QuestionDo you think your brain today is the same as it was when you were born? Why or why not?Give students a few minutes to come up with responses, and have them record those responses in their notes for later. Let them know these examples will be revisited or else they might spend the rest of the lecture trying to figure out why they did this exercise.
3 Types of Neurons Sensory neurons Motor neurons Interneurons Information from sensory organsMotor neuronsInformation from CNS to muscles/glandsInterneuronsIn the CNS, information from one neuron to another
4 Parts of the Neuron Cell body Axon Dendrites Keeps the cell alive Receive messagesAxonSends messagesEnds in the axon terminalMay have myelin sheath
5 Action Potential All-or-none firing response Can change the rate of impulses to increase strengthDepolarization and repolarization
6 Synaptic Transmission Neurotransmitters cross the synaptic gapKey and lockExcitatory vs. inhibitory synapse
7 Studying the Human Brain Observing localized brain damageTranscranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)Electroencephalogram (EEG)Positron emission tomography (PET)Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
8 Studying the Non-Human Brain Brain lesionsStimulationElectrical recordingWhy do you think these methods are usually reserved for non-human animals?
9 Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nervous Systems Fight or flightParasympathetic nervous systemGrowth promoting, energy saving
10 Spinal Cord Pathway to the brain Organizes simple reflexes Pattern Generation
12 Thalamus Relays sensory and motor signals Arousal of the brain Did you know that Michael J. Fox had surgery on his thalamus to help with his symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease?
13 Cerebellum and Basil Ganglia Coordinate skilled movementsFeedbackFeed-forward
14 Limbic System Amygdala Hippocampus Regulation of basic drives and emotionsHippocampusEncoding certain memories
15 Hypothalmus Regulates the internal environment of the body Influences the autonomic nervous systemControls the release of certain hormonesAffects certain drive states, such as hunger and thirstHelps regulate emotional states, such as fear and anger
17 Hemispheric Specialization Left HemisphereLanguageRight HemisphereNon-verbal, visuospatial information
18 Broca’s Area and Wernicke’s Area Broca’s aphasiaWernicke’s areaWernicke’s aphasia
19 Experience and the Brain If you use it, it will growNeurons that fire together wire togetherHebbian synapseLong-term potentiation
20 Hormones and the Brain Hormones vs. neurotransmitters Neurohormones Snail mail vs.Neurohormones
21 Drugs and the Brain Drugs vs. hormones Drugs and synaptic transmission Do you know anyone who takes an antidepressant medication such as Zoloft or Prozac? These drugs block the re-uptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin
22 AssessmentTake a minute to right down as many words as you can remember that relate to neurons without looking at your notes.Students can write down their answers to hand in, either with or without their names, or they can discuss their answers aloud.