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Biological Perspectivehttp://education-portal

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1 Biological Perspectivehttp://education-portal
It is all about the body!!!!

2 The Nervous Systemhttp://education-portal. com/academy/lesson/neurons
It starts with an individual nerve cell called a NEURON.

3 Neuroanatomy Synapse Synapse
Neurotransmitters (chemicals held in terminal buttons that travel through synaptic gap)

4 How a Neuron Fires It is an electrochemical process
Electrical inside the neuron Chemical outside the neuron (in the synapse in the form of a neurotransmitter). The firing is called Action Potential. *

5 The All-or None Response
The idea that either the neuron fires or it does not- no part way firing Like a gun *

6 Steps of Action Potential
Resting potential—the neuron is ready to fire Reached its threshold- then fires based on the all- or-none response. Opens up a portal in axon, and lets in positive ions (Sodium) which mix with negative ions (Potassium) that is already inside the axon The mixing of + and – ions causes an electrical charge that opens up the next portal (letting in more K) while closing the original portal. Process continues down axon to the axon terminal. Terminal buttons turns electrical charge into chemical (neurotransmitter) and shoots message to next neuron across the synapse. *

7 Action Potential *

8 *

9 Excitatory Effect . A neurotransmitter effect that makes it more likely that the receiving neuron will generate an action potential or “fire” *

10 Inhibitory Effect A neurotransmitter effect that makes it less likely that the receiving neuron will generate an action potential or “fire” *


12 Acetylcholine (ACH) Deals with motor movement and memory.
Too much and you will…. Too little and you will… Lack of ACH has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease.

13 Dopamine Deals with motor movement and alertness.
Lack of dopamine has been linked to Parkinson’s disease. Too much has been linked to schizophrenia.

14 Serotonin Involved in mood control.
Lack of serotonin has been linked to clinical depression.

15 Endorphins Involved in pain control.
Many of our most addictive drugs deal with endorphins.

16 Drugs can be….. Agonists- mimics/excites
Antagonists- stop neural firing

17 Types of Neurons Efferent (Motor) Neurons Interneurons
Afferent (Sensory) Neurons

18 A Neural Chain *

19 A Neural Chain *

20 A Neural Chain *

21 A Neural Chain *

22 The Nervous System http://education-portal

23 Central Nervous System
The Brain and spinal cord CNS

24 Peripheral Nervous System
All nerves that are not encased in bone. Everything but the brain and spinal cord. Is divided into two categories….somatic and autonomic.

25 Somatic Nervous System
Controls voluntary muscle movement. Uses motor (efferent) neurons.

26 Autonomic Nervous System
Controls the automatic functions of the body. Divided into two categories…the sympathetic and the parasympathetic

27 Sympathetic Nervous System
Fight or Flight Response. Automatically accelerates heart rate, breathing, dilates pupils, slows down digestion.

28 Parasympathetic Nervous System
Automatically slows the body down after a stressful event. Heart rate and breathing slow down, pupils constrict and digestion speeds up.

29 Reflexes Normally, sensory (afferent) neurons take info up through spine to the brain. Some reactions occur when sensory neurons reach just the spinal cord.


31 The BrainPinky & the BrainIcons of Science
Made up of neurons and glial cells. Glial cells support neural cells. My mom is my glial cell. She takes care of me!!!

32 Ways to study the Brain!!! Accidents: Phineas Gage. yes&pid=1575#

33 Lesions Cutting into the brain and looking for change.
Brain tumors also lesion brain tissue.

34 Less Invasive ways to study the Brain
Electroencephalogram (EEG) Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Functional MRI *

35 Brain Structureshttp://education-portal
Some scientists divide the brain up into three parts. Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain

36 Pons Connects hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain together.
Involved in sleep/dreaming

37 Medulla Oblongata Located just above the spinal cord.
Involved in control of blood pressure heart rate breathing. *

38 Cerebellum Located in the back of our head- means little brain.
Coordinates muscle movements. Balance/coordination

39 Midbrain Coordinates simple movements with sensory information.
Contains the reticular formation: arousal and ability to focus attention.

40 Thalamus In Forebrain Receives sensory information and sends them to appropriate areas of forebrain. Like a switchboard. Everything but smell.

41 Limbic System#24
EMOTIONAL CONTROL CENTER of the brain. Made up of Hypothalamus, Amygdala and Hippocampus.

42 Hypothalamus Pea sized in brain, but plays a not so pea sized role.
Body temperature Hunger Thirst Sexual Arousal (libido) Endocrine System *

43 Hippocampus and Amygdala
Hippocampus is involved in memory processing. Amygdala is vital for our basic emotions.

44 Cerebral Cortex Top layer of our brain.
Contains wrinkles called fissures. The fissures increase surface area of our brain. Laid out it would be about the size of a large pizza.

45 HemispheresRight or Left brain dominant?
Divided into a left and right hemisphere. Contralateral controlled- left controls right side of body and vice versa. Brain Lateralization. Lefties are better at spatial and creative tasks. Righties are better at logic.

46 Split-Brain Patients Corpus Collosum attaches the two hemispheres of cerebral cortex. When removed you have a split-brain patient.

47 Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
Divided into eight lobes, four in each hemisphere (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal). Any area not dealing with our senses or muscle movements are called association areas.

48 Frontal Lobe Deals with planning, maintaining emotional control and abstract thought. Contains Motor Cortex.

49 Temporal Lobes Process sound sensed by ears. Not lateralized.
Contains Wernicke’s area. Wernicke’s Aphasia.

50 Occipital Lobes In the back of our head.
Handles visual input from eyes. Right half of each retina goes to left occipital lobe and vice versa.

51 Brain Plasticityhttp://www. learner. org/vod/vod_window. html
The ability for our brains to form new connections after the neurons are damaged. The younger you are, the more plastic your brain is.

52 The Endocrine System A system of glands that secrete hormones.
Similar to nervous system, except hormones work a lot slower than neurotransmitters. Hormones Neurotransmitters *

53 Endocrine Systemhttp://education-portal
System of glands that secrete hormones. Controlled by the hypothalamus. Ovaries and Testes. Adrenal Gland

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