Presentation on theme: "Biological Perspectivehttp://education-portal"— Presentation transcript:
1 Biological Perspectivehttp://education-portal It is all about the body!!!!
2 The Nervous Systemhttp://education-portal. com/academy/lesson/neurons It starts with an individual nerve cell called a NEURON.
3 Neuroanatomy Synapse Synapse Neurotransmitters (chemicals held in terminal buttons that travel through synaptic gap)
4 How a Neuron Fires It is an electrochemical process Electrical inside the neuronChemical outside the neuron (in the synapse in the form of a neurotransmitter).The firing is calledAction Potential.*
5 The All-or None Response The idea that either the neuron fires or it does not- no part way firingLike a gun*
6 Steps of Action Potential Resting potential—the neuron is ready to fireReached its threshold- then fires based on the all- or-none response.Opens up a portal in axon, and lets in positive ions (Sodium) which mix with negative ions (Potassium) that is already inside the axonThe mixing of + and – ions causes an electrical charge that opens up the next portal (letting in more K) while closing the original portal.Process continues down axon to the axon terminal.Terminal buttons turns electrical charge into chemical (neurotransmitter) and shoots message to next neuron across the synapse.*
31 The BrainPinky & the BrainIcons of Science Made up of neurons and glial cells.Glial cells support neural cells.My mom is my glial cell. She takes care of me!!!
32 Ways to study the Brain!!!Accidents: Phineas Gage. yes&pid=1575#
33 Lesions Cutting into the brain and looking for change. Brain tumors also lesion brain tissue.
34 Less Invasive ways to study the Brain Electroencephalogram (EEG)Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT)Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)Positron Emission Tomography (PET)Functional MRI*
35 Brain Structureshttp://education-portal Some scientists divide the brain up into three parts.HindbrainMidbrainForebrain
36 Pons Connects hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain together. Involved in sleep/dreaming
37 Medulla Oblongata Located just above the spinal cord. Involved in control ofblood pressureheart ratebreathing.*
38 Cerebellum Located in the back of our head- means little brain. Coordinates muscle movements.Balance/coordination
39 Midbrain Coordinates simple movements with sensory information. Contains the reticular formation: arousal and ability to focus attention.
40 ThalamusIn ForebrainReceives sensory information and sends them to appropriate areas of forebrain.Like a switchboard.Everything but smell.
41 Limbic System#24 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BDujDOLre-8 EMOTIONAL CONTROL CENTER of the brain.Made up of Hypothalamus, Amygdala and Hippocampus.
42 Hypothalamus Pea sized in brain, but plays a not so pea sized role. Body temperatureHungerThirstSexual Arousal (libido)Endocrine System*
43 Hippocampus and Amygdala Hippocampus is involved in memory processing.Amygdala is vital for our basic emotions.
44 Cerebral Cortex Top layer of our brain. Contains wrinkles called fissures.The fissures increase surface area of our brain.Laid out it would be about the size of a large pizza.
45 HemispheresRight or Left brain dominant? Divided into a left and right hemisphere.Contralateral controlled- left controls right side of body and vice versa.Brain Lateralization.Lefties are better at spatial and creative tasks.Righties are better at logic.
46 Split-Brain PatientsCorpus Collosum attaches the two hemispheres of cerebral cortex.When removed you have a split-brain patient.
47 Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Divided into eight lobes, four in each hemisphere (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal).Any area not dealing with our senses or muscle movements are called association areas.
48 Frontal LobeDeals with planning, maintaining emotional control and abstract thought.Contains Motor Cortex.
49 Temporal Lobes Process sound sensed by ears. Not lateralized. Contains Wernicke’s area.Wernicke’s Aphasia.
50 Occipital Lobes In the back of our head. Handles visual input from eyes.Right half of each retina goes to left occipital lobe and vice versa.
51 Brain Plasticityhttp://www. learner. org/vod/vod_window. html The ability for our brains to form new connections after the neurons are damaged.The younger you are, the more plastic your brain is.
52 The Endocrine System A system of glands that secrete hormones. Similar to nervous system, except hormones work a lot slower than neurotransmitters.HormonesNeurotransmitters*
53 Endocrine Systemhttp://education-portal System of glands that secrete hormones.Controlled by the hypothalamus.Ovaries and Testes.Adrenal Gland