The Subfields of Psychology: 2. How Do People Sense, Perceive, Learn, and Think about the World? Experimental Psychology Methodological study of sensing, perceiving, learning and thinking Cognitive Psychology Emphasis on higher mental processes
Psychology’s Roots Wilhelm Wundt Established the first experimental laboratory devoted to psychology. Structuralism Focused on the basic building blocks of perception, consciousness, thinking, and emotions -Introspection Early History Trephining : chipping a hole in a patient's skull. Evil sprits could then escape!
Women in Psychology June Etta Downey (1875 – 1932) Personality trait theorist Anna Freud (1895 – 1982) Notable contributions to the treatment of abnormal behaviour Mamie Phipps Clark (1917 – 1983) Demonstrated how children of colour recognize racial differences Brenda Miller Recognized as one of Canada’s great Canadian psychologists Received recognition for her work in 1955 with a brain surgery patient without short-term memory.
Psychology’s Key Issues 5. Individual differences versus universal principles How much of our behaviour is a consequence of our unique and special qualities and how much reflects culture and society?
Scientific Method: Developing Explanations Research Broad explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest Theories Broad explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest Hypothesis A prediction stated in a way that allows it to be tested Operationalization The process of translating a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observed
Correlation Research Correlational Research The relationship between two sets of variables is examined to determine whether they are associated, or “correlated” Correlation does not mean “causation” Ranges from +1 to -1
Research Challenges Ethics Protection of participants from physical and mental harm The right of participants to privacy regarding their behaviour The assurance that participation in research is completely voluntary The necessity of informing participants about the nature of procedures prior to participation in the experiment