2Learning Goals What is the “best” leadership style? What four styles can leaders use to make decisions?What traits and characteristics are related to leader emergence? What traits and characteristics are related to leader effectiveness?
3Learning Goals, Cont’dHow does transformational leadership differ from transactional leadership? What kinds of behaviors underlie transformational leadership?How does leadership affect job performance and organizational commitment?Can leaders be trained to be more effective?
4LeadershipLeadership is the use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement.How leaders get the power and influence needed to direct others (Chapter 13).How leaders actually use their power and influence in an effective way.
5Leader EffectivenessLeader effectiveness is the degree to which the leader’s actions result in the achievement of the unit’s goals, the continued commitment of the unit’s employees, and the development of mutual trust, respect, and obligation in leader–member dyads.Most studies have concluded that traits are more predictive of leader emergence (i.e., who becomes a leader in the first place) than they are of leader effectiveness (i.e., how well people actually do in a leadership role).
6Traits/Characteristics Related to Leader Emergence and Effectiveness Table 14-2
7Leadership Modeling Behaviors As the leader YOU set both the culture and norms of behavior for your work group.If employees are motivated, they will look to the leader for appropriate behaviors and be influenced by the leader’s attitudes.
8You Can Influence Work Attitudes Through YOUR Values A Manager Should Model These Values to Achieve Positive Attitudes and Ethical BehaviorAchievementConcern for OthersHonestyFairness
10McGregor’s Theory X & Theory Y Leadership Styles Leaders operating under “Theory X” assume:Employees are lazy.Employees must be coerced and threatened for motivation.Employees will avoid responsibility.Employees have no ambition.Leaders operating under “Theory Y” assume:Employees want to work.Committed employees can be self directed.Employees want responsibility.Employees have an ability to make innovative decisions.
11Theories X & Y As a Continuum of Leadership Styles Theory YTheory X
12Leadership Continuum And Employee Freedom Theory XTheory Y
13Question: What’s the BEST Leadership Style???? Theory XTheory YGeorge PattonDonald TrumpJoseph StalinSir Richard BransonBen Cohen & Jerry GreenfieldOprah Winfrey
15Decision-Making Styles Decision-making styles capture how a leader decides as opposed to what a leader decides.Autocratic style - the leader makes the decision alone without asking for the opinions or suggestions of the employees in the work unit.Consultative style - the leader presents the problem to individual employees or a group of employees, asking for their opinions and suggestions before ultimately making the decision him- or herself.
16Decision-Making Styles, Cont’d Facilitative style - the leader presents the problem to a group of employees and seeks consensus on a solution, making sure that his or her own opinion receives no more weight than anyone else’s.Delegative style - the leader gives an individual employee or a group of employees the responsibility for making the decision within some set of specified boundary conditions.
17Transactional & Transformational Leadership Transformational leadership involves inspiring followers to commit to a shared vision that provides meaning to their work while also serving as a role model who helps followers develop their own potential and view problems from new perspectives.Laissez-faire leadership (i.e., hands-off) is the avoidance of leadership altogether.
18Transactional & Transformational Leadership, Cont’d Transactional leadership occurs when the leader rewards or disciplines the follower depending on the adequacy of the follower’s performance.With passive management-by-exception, the leader waits around for mistakes and errors, then takes corrective action as necessary.With active management-by-exception, the leader arranges to monitor mistakes and errors actively and again takes corrective action when required.Contingent reward happens when the leader attains follower agreement on what needs to be done using promised or actual rewards in exchange for adequate performance.
19Dimensions of Transformational Leadership Idealized influence involves behaving in ways that earn the admiration, trust, and respect of followers, causing followers to want to identify with and emulate the leader.“The leader instills pride in me for being associated with him/her.”Inspirational motivation involves behaving in ways that foster an enthusiasm for and commitment to a shared vision of the future.“The leader articulates a compelling vision of the future.”
20Dimensions of Transformational Leadership, Cont’d Intellectual stimulation involves behaving in ways that challenge followers to be innovative and creative by questioning assumptions and reframing old situations in new ways.“The leader gets others to look at problems from many different angles.”Individualized consideration involves behaving in ways that help followers achieve their potential through coaching, development, and mentoring.“The leader spends time teaching and coaching.”
21Laissez-Faire, Transactional, and Transformational Leadership Figure 14-5
24How Important is Leadership? Transformational leadership affects the job performance of the employees who report to the leader.Employees with transformational leaders tend to have higher levels of task performance and engage in higher levels of citizenship behaviors.Employees have higher levels of motivation and trust their leader more.Employees with transformational leaders tend to be more committed to their organization.
25Effects of Transformational Leadership on Performance and Commitment Figure 14-7
26Substitutes for Leadership Substitutes for leadership model suggests that certain characteristics of the situation can constrain the influence of the leader, making it more difficult for the leader to influence employee performance.Substitutes reduce the importance of the leader while simultaneously providing a direct benefit to employee performance.Neutralizers only reduce the importance of the leader—they themselves have no beneficial impact on performance.
28TakeawaysLeadership is defined as the use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement. An “effective leader” improves the performance and well-being of the overall unit. An “effective leader” also cultivates high-quality leader–member exchange relationships on a dyadic basis through role taking and role making processes.Leader emergence has been linked to a number of traits, some of which also predict leader effectiveness.
29Takeaways, Cont’dLeaders can use a number of styles to make decisions. Beginning with high leader control and moving to high follower control, they include autocratic, consultative, facilitative, and delegative styles. According to the time-driven model of leadership, the appropriateness of these styles depends on decision significance, the importance of commitment, leader expertise, the likelihood of commitment, shared objectives, employee expertise, and teamwork skills.
30Takeaways, Cont’dTransactional leadership emphasizes “carrot-and-stick” approaches to motivating employees, whereas transformational leadership fundamentally changes the way employees view their work. The specific behaviors that underlie transformational leadership include the “Four Is”: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration.Transformational leadership has a moderate positive relationship with job performance and a strong positive relationship with organizational commitment. It has stronger effects on these outcomes than other leadership behaviors.