Presentation on theme: "13-2 Defining Leadership “The ability to influence through communication the activities of others, individually or as a group, toward the accomplishment."— Presentation transcript:
1 13-2 Defining Leadership“The ability to influence through communication the activities of others, individually or as a group, toward the accomplishment of worthwhile, meaningful, and challenging goals.”It is a general concept that applies in many different social contexts.The traits and behaviors that are necessary for leaders of large organizations are different from those that are required for leaders of entrepreneurial ventures.
2 Alternate Definitions Of Leadership The act of providing direction, energizing others, and obtaining their voluntary commitment to the leader’s vision.The process of influencing a group toward the achievement of goals
3 13-1 Introduction (cont.)Research has determined that many entrepreneurs are effective in creating and running a company on their own.However growth requires additional employees, when the entrepreneur hasn’t the necessary skills to motivate and inspire followers.Efforts to analyze effective entrepreneurial leadership have focused on three general areas:The personal traits of leadersThe behavior of leadersThe situations in which leadership developsThere is agreement that traits and behaviors necessary for being an effective leader vary depending on situation.
4 13-2a The Core of Leadership: Influence Leaders use influence as their primary tool to move the venture toward its goals.Seven influence strategies proposed as vital for entrepreneurial leadership roles:ReasonFriendlinessCoalitionBargainingAssertivenessHigher authoritySanctionsResearch indicates that employees demonstrate higher levels of motivation if they’re allowed to influence the way the organization works.
5 Exhibit 13-2 The Management-Leadership Continuum
6 13-3 Foundations Of Entrepreneurial Leadership The three main approaches at the center of the debate surrounding the foundations of leadership are:Trait theoryBehavioral theoryContingency theoryOver the years, each of these approaches has been refined and various dimensions have been added.
7 13-3a The Trait Theory of Leadership (cont.) Although the trait theory has identified a number of personality characteristics that have been linked to leadership, none have been determined to be essential in all places and under all circumstances.Studies have produced a lengthy list of possible traits essential to leadership, which are grouped into six categories:Physical traitsBackground characteristicsIntelligencePersonalityTask-related characteristicsSocial characteristics
8 13-3b The Behavioral Theory of Leadership (cont.) Task-oriented leadershipTechniques emphasize the need for leaders to plan each worker’s job tasks and job outcomes.Leaders try to ensure that each task is performed according to the business plan.Terms used to refer to task-oriented leadership behaviors include directive, production-oriented, autocratic, and initiating structure.Many modern leaders still believe that task-oriented behavior is the most effective for obtaining performance.
9 13-3b The Behavioral Theory of Leadership (cont.) Person-oriented leadershipThis perspective holds that the way leaders get things done through others has implications for the long-term health and prosperity of a venture.Another way of understanding the distinction between task-oriented and person-oriented leadership is through two leadership theories.Theory X assumptionsTheory Y assumptions
11 McGregor’s Assumptions (about employees) Theory X EmployeesIrresponsibleLack ambitionDislike workAvoid responsibilityAre motivated by extrinsic rewards/punishmentsTheory Y EmployeesGoal seekingCreativeLike workAccept responsibilityAre motivated by intrinsic rewards
12 13-3b The Behavioral Theory of Leadership (cont.) Combining Task-Oriented and Person-Oriented LeadershipContrasting perspectives make it appear that entrepreneurial leaders must choose one or the other, but not both.If so, then aspiring leaders need only develop a narrow range of skills that are either task- or person-oriented.If the most effective leaders are task-oriented, then leaders need skills only in the technical aspects of planning and organizing the work of others.If the most effective leaders are person-oriented, then human relations and interpersonal skills are required.
13 13-3b The Behavioral Theory of Leadership (cont.) The idea that effective leadership requires a balance between task- and person-oriented behaviors has considerable appeal.Two approaches to this idea have become well known in the theory and practice of leadership:Two-dimensional theoryManagerial grid theory
14 13-3c The Contingency Theory of Leadership Current popular idea is that effective leadership behavior is contingent on the situation in which leaders finds themselves.The theory is considerably more complex than either the trait or the behavioral approach.Effective leadership depends on the interaction of:The leader’s personal characteristicsThe leader’s behaviorFactors in the leadership situationA recurring theme is the concept of participation by subordinates in organizational decision making.At the extremes of this continuum are boss-centered leadership and subordinate-centered leadership.
15 13-3c The Contingency Theory of Leadership (cont.) Whether a leader should make the decision and announce it or share the problem with subordinates and seek group consensus depends on the interaction of factors related to the problem and to the subordinates.Factors related to the problem are:Likelihood that one solution to the problem is more effective than anotherExtent to which the leader has sufficient information to make a high-quality decisionExtent to which alternative solutions are known with some certainty
16 13-3c The Contingency Theory of Leadership (cont.) Factors related to subordinates are:Likelihood that effective implementation of the solution depends on subordinates accepting it as appropriateLikelihood that if the leader makes the decision, the subordinates will accept itExtent to which subordinates recognize and accept the organizational objectives to be attained by the solutionLikelihood that conflict among subordinates will result if the preferred solution is adoptedCombining these seven factors creates different situations.