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Solutions Solution l A solution is a homogeneous mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another substance.

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Presentation on theme: "Solutions Solution l A solution is a homogeneous mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another substance."— Presentation transcript:


2 Solutions

3 Solution l A solution is a homogeneous mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another substance

4 Components of a solution l Two parts of a solution: the substance being dissolved (solute) and the substance doing the dissolving (solvent)

5 Aqueous solution l Solutions in which the solvent is water are aqueous solutions (most common)

6 Tinctures l A solution in which the solvent is alcohol is a tincture Ex: iodine tincture

7 Characteristics of a solution l Mixture of two or more substances l light passes through it l particles are uniformly distributed

8 Ions and dissociation l Ions are atoms with a positive or negative charge

9 Electrolytes l Solutions that conduct electricity are electrolytes (sodium chloride and silver nitrate)

10 Non-electrolytes l Non-electrolytes form solutions that do not conduct electricity (sugar, alcohol, benzene)

11 Questions l What is a solution? l What are the two parts of a solution? l What are three properties of a solution?

12 Questions l Whats the difference between an aqueous solution and a tincture

13 Question l If you wanted to dissolve a substance in water as quickly as possible what could you do?

14 Ways to increase dissolving rate l In order to increase the rate in which a solution dissolves one could heat the solution, stir it, or crush the solute particles

15 Solubility l The measure of how much solute can be dissolved in a solvent is solubility

16 What affects solubility? l The three main factors that affect solubility are temperature, type and the amount of the solvent

17 Effervescence (fizz) l The escape of a gas from a liquid is effervescence (example: soda and alka seltzer)

18 Concentration l Concentration of a solution is the amount of solute that is dissolved in a solvent

19 Concentrated vs. dilute l A solution with a lot of solute dissolved is concentrated l A solution with a little solute dissolved is dilute

20 Types of solutions l A saturated solution contains all the solute it can possibly hold l An unsaturated solution contains less solute that is possible

21 Supersaturated solution l A supersaturated solution can be made to hold more solute than is normal

22 Question l Compare a saturated, unsaturated, and a supersaturated solution

23 Questions l What is solubility and what are the three factors that affect it? l What are three ways to increase the rate in which a solute dissolves?

24 Water l Water is the universal solvent l A substance that cannot dissolve in water is insoluble

25 Polar vs. non-polar l A polar molecule has oppositely charged ends (+ and -) l Non-polar molecules have the same charges on its ends

26 Rule for dissolving solutes in a solvent l Like solutes dissolve in like solvents (polar in polar, non-polar in non- polar)

27 Hard water vs. soft water l Hard water contains dissolved metal ions l Soft water does not contain dissolved metal ions

28 Freezing point depression l Lowering the freezing point of a solution as a result of the dissolved solute (freezing point depression) Ex: antifreeze in water

29 Boiling point elevation l Raising the boiling point of a substance by adding solute (salt in water)

30 Questions l What is the difference between polar and non- polar molecules? l What is the general rule for dissolving solutes?

31 Questions l What is the difference between hard and soft water? l How does a solute affect the freezing point and the boiling point?

32 Suspension l A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the solute particles are large enough to be seen (solute is suspended)

33 Colloid l A colloid is a homogeneous mixture that is not a true solution (does not separate, solute remains suspended)

34 Acids l Properties of an acid: sour taste, affecting the color of indicators, turn litmus paper from blue to red, pH 1-6.9

35 Weak acids vs. strong acids l Weak acids (pH ) l Strong acids (pH about 1-3; common acids: sulfuric, hydrochloric, nitric, and acetic acids

36 Bases l Bases are slippery, bitter taste, turn litmus paper from red to blue l pH

37 Bases l Common bases potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, and ammonium hydroxide

38 Weak bases vs. strong bases l Weak bases ( pH) l Strong bases (11-14 pH)

39 pH scale l Measures hydronium ion concentration (strength of the acid or base) l pH scale ranges from 0-14 (7 is the neutral point) water

40 Salt l Salt is a compound formed when an acid is mixed with a base (positive ion from a base and a negative ion from an acid)

41 Neutralization l A neutralization reaction occurs when an acid and a base combine to form salt and water

42 Precipitate l A precipitate is an insoluble substance crystallizes out of solution (ex: salt from a neutralization reaction)

43 Precipitation reaction l The process of forming a precipitate is precipitation

44 Questions l What is the pH scale used for? l What is the pH range for an acid, a base?

45 Questions l What are some properties of an acid? Of a base? l Describe neutraliztion. l What is a salt?

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