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Chapter 9 Acids & Bases. Acids donate protons to water to form hydronium ions taste sour turn cabbage juice red turn litmus paper red neutralize bases.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Acids & Bases. Acids donate protons to water to form hydronium ions taste sour turn cabbage juice red turn litmus paper red neutralize bases."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Acids & Bases

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3 Acids donate protons to water to form hydronium ions taste sour turn cabbage juice red turn litmus paper red neutralize bases

4 Bases donate hydroxide groups accept protons taste bitter feel slimy turn cabbage juice yellow, green or blue depending upon the solution concentration turn litmus paper blue

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6 Everyday Uses for Acids digestion of food clean metals production of fertilizers making explosives carbonating beverages

7 What Makes a Compound an ACID? When dissolved in water, all acids share certain physical & chemical properties sour taste color change (litmus paper to red, phenolphthalein turns colorless) corrode metals all contain hydrogen produce a positive hydrogen ion when dissolved in water (creates the hydronium ion H 3 O) known as proton donors

8 Three Common & Strong Acids HCl – hydrochloric acid H 2 SO 4 – sulfuric acid HNO 3 – nitric acid strong acids ionize to a high decree in water many H + ions strong acids are good electrolytes

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10 What is an Electrolyte? a substance whose water solution conducts an electric current Strong acids conduct electricity very well because they produce many ions in water Weak acids do not conduct electricity as well

11 Everyday Uses for Bases found in antacids (like Mylanta & Milk of Magnesia) to neutralize extra acids in the stomach used to make soaps (lye) used to make household cleaner (ammonium) found in deodorants

12 What Makes a Compound a BASE? When dissolved in water, all bases share certain physical & chemical properties bitter taste color change (litmus paper to blue, phenolphthalein turns bright pink) slippery to the touch all contain hydroxide ion OH- known as proton acceptors

13 Three Common & Strong Bases KOH – potassium hydroxide NaOH – sodium hydroxide Ca(OH) 2 – calcium hydroxide strong bases readily dissolve in water to produce a high # of ions strong bases are good electrolytes (good conductors of electricity)

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15 Acids & Bases in Solution Solutions can be acidic, basic, or neutral the pH scale is used to determine the acidity of a solution the pH of a solution is a measure of the hydronium ion (H 3 O + ) concentration

16 Higher Concentratio n of H + (proton donors)

17 Equal Concentrati on of H + and OH -

18 Higher Concentratio nof OH - (proton acceptor)

19 pH the pH scale is a series of #s from 0 – 14 0 – 6 = acidic 7 = neutral (like distilled water) = basic strong acids have low pH numbers while strong bases have high pH numbers

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22 pH of Commo n Items

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24 Formation of Salts when acids react chemically with bases, they for a class of compounds called the salts a salt forms from the positive ion of a base & the negative ion from an acid this reaction, called neutralization, also produces water as a by- product H + Cl - + Na + OH - → H 2 O + NaCl What kind of reaction is neutralization?

25 Precipitates many of the salts created by the neutralization process do not dissolve in water they crystallize out of the solution to form a precipitate

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