Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Unit 4.  Toddler- one and two year olds  Preschooler- child from age three to five.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Unit 4.  Toddler- one and two year olds  Preschooler- child from age three to five."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 4

2  Toddler- one and two year olds  Preschooler- child from age three to five

3  Height and weight  Slows by about half  Proportion and posture  Until age 2 the measurement around the child’s head, abdomen and chest are about the same  Between 2 and 3 the chest becomes larger along with the limbs and the child’s balance and motor skills improve  Teeth  By 3 years old they typically have a set of 20 teeth

4  Sensory integration-brain combines information taken in through the senses to make a whole  Eating an orange  Motor skills  Dexterity- skillful use of the hands and fingers  Fine and gross continue to improve as well as hand-eye coordination

5  Sleep  Less sleep is required- 6 or more hours at night and one or two naps of a couple hours  Fears or anxiety about separation from parents can make falling asleep difficult for toddlers  Sleep disturbances or night terrors

6  Nutritional needs and eating  Self feeding 1:finger foods and a training cup 2: learning to use a fork and drinking from a cup; if not already should be sitting at the table with the family 3: can use spoon and fork, eat what the family eats. Meats need to be cut up into small bites  Require small servings due to small stomach size  Need to have a well balanced diet  Try to make foods appealing  Color  Texture  Shape  Temperature

7  Safety-CHILDPROOF  Choking hazards Food appropriate size  Toys Small removable parts  Poisons  Fire and burns  Motor vehicles Carseat  Sunburns  Pets  Drowning

8  Hygiene-personal care and cleanliness  Washing and bathing Children often assert their independence at bath time Remember bathtub safety-child can drown in as little as 1 inch water  Caring for teeth Start brushing daily when teeth appear By age 2 children can practice brushing own teeth 18 months first dentist check-up  Toilet training Usually happens between 2-3 years of age Must be physically and emotionally ready Use positive reinforcement not negative

9  Dressing  Huge deal for children in this age group  Usually want to pick out their own clothing and put them on themselves  If potty training choose clothing that is easy to take off

10  Self-centered-thinking about one’s own needs and wants and not others  Beginning to learn that some desires will not be met immediately or ever  “No” stage  Negativism-doing the opposite of what others want  Desire for independence  Frustration  Affectionate  Overwhelmed and frustrated-their ability to understand tasks exceed their physical ability to perform  Willing to change behavior for praise  Bothered by fears

11  Emotions  Anger Reacting to frustration  Fear Separation anxiety  Jealousy Sibling rivalry  Love and affection  Empathy

12  18 months  Parallel play- children play near, but not actually with other children  Understand that actions have consequences  2 years  Can gauge the mood of a caregiver  Begin to understand sharing or taking turns  2.5years  Fairness  May refuse to do something for one person, but happy to do it for another  3 years  Cooperative play-children play and interact with one another  Work together in small groups  3.5 years  More conversations happens  Begin to compare themselves to other children Imaginary friends are a normal part of this age group

13  Setting Limits  Show an understanding of the child’s desires  Set the limit and explain it  Give alternatives  Guidance  Learning self-discipline  12-15 months- distracting/redirecting  15months-2years- verbal restriction w/redirection  2-3years- spoken commands and simple explanations

14  Possible behavioral problems  Biting  Hitting  Kicking  Shoving  Different views on hot to deal with this:  Time-out  Communication with redirection  bite/hit back  biting biting

15  Incidental  Unplanned learning  Trial and error  Tries several solutions to find one that works  Imitation  Watching and copying  Directed  Learning that results from being taught

16  Attention  Memory  Perception  Reasoning  Imagination  Creativity  Curiosity

17  Reading readiness-learning the skills necessary for reading  Math readiness-knowledge of basic math concepts needed for learning math  Guided learning  Give your time and attention  Allow time for thinking  Give only as much help as the child needs  Encourage children to draw their own conclusions  Demonstrate how to problem solve  Model problem solving  Maintain positive attitude  Keep explanations simple  Allow children to explore

Download ppt "Unit 4.  Toddler- one and two year olds  Preschooler- child from age three to five."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google