Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Introduction to Earth Science

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Earth Science"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Earth Science
Chapter 1

2 What is Earth Science? Earth science is the study of Earth and the universe around it Uses observations and experimentation to discover the causes of natural events

3 Cultural Contributions
China: kept records of earthquakes (780 BC) Ancient Greeks: cataloged rocks and minerals (200 BC) Mayans: tracked celestial movements

4 Branches of Earth Science
There are four major areas of study: geology, oceanography, meteorology, & astronomy

5 Geology The study of the origin, history, processes, and structure of the solid Earth Examples: volcanologist studies volcanoes

6 Oceanography The study of Earth’s oceans
Example: studying waves, tides, or ocean currents

7 Meteorology The study of Earth’s atmosphere, especially weather and climate Examples: meteorologists use Doppler radar to track storms

8 Astronomy The study of the universe beyond Earth
Oldest branch of Earth Science Example: space exploration

9 Environmental Science
Study of the way humans interact with their environment Example: effects of pollution, loss of biodiversity, use of natural resources

10 The Importance of Earth Science
An understanding of natural forces can help predict potential disasters We also need to understand conservation of natural resources

11 Science as a Process Section 1.2

12 Behavior of Natural Systems
Scientists assume: Nature is understandable Similar forces = similar results Nature is predictable

13 Ice Cores Provide clues to Earth’s past climate changes
Ice cores are sliced thin and the gases they contain are analyzed

14 Scientific Measurements and Analysis
Measurement is the comparison of some aspect of an object or event with a standard unit The International System of Units (SI) is used worldwide (based on powers of 10)

15 Accuracy and Precision
Accuracy: how close a measurement is to the true value of the thing being measured Precision: the exactness of the measurement

16 Error An expression of the amount of imprecision or variation in a set of measurements Expressed as percentage error or as a confidence interval

17 Observations and Models
A model is a representation, description, or imitation of an object, system, process, or concept Conceptual model: verbal or graphical (represents how a system works) Mathematical model: equations

18 Scientific Publication
Scientific results are often published in journals Written in standard scientific format Many journal articles are found online

19 Peer Review Articles are submitted for peer review before they are published Several experts read through the article to make sure it is worthy of publication Scientists follow a code of ethics that only valid scientific results should be published

20 Formulating a Theory A theory is an explanation that has been tested and supported by experimental results Theories are based on scientific laws Scientific laws are general statements that describe how the natural world works Example: Law of gravity

21 Interdisciplinary Science
The exchange of ideas between fields of science supports scientific evidence When an explanation is supported in a variety of fields, it is more accurate Example: meteor impact hypothesis

22 Science and Society Advances in science have led to the development of new machines, tools, materials, and processes Technology that was designed for space exploration has been used to improve computers, cars, medical equipment, and airplanes

23 Problems with Technology
New technology can lead to new pollution problems Risks, costs and benefits must be considered Example: drilling for oil in ANWR will cause irreversible damage to the tundra

24 Scientific Advancements
The main goal of technology is to solve human problems

Download ppt "Introduction to Earth Science"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google