2ObjectivesExplain how science is different from other forms of human endeavor.Identify the steps that make up scientific methods.Analyze how scientific thought changes as new information is collected.Explain how science affects society.
3Goal of ScienceTo explain natural phenomena by asking questions about natural events and answer them through experimentation and examination.
4Behavior of Natural Systems Scientists assume that:Nature is understandable.Similar forces in similar situations cause similar results (even if the forces involved are complex).Nature is predictable.
5Natural Systems are Complex So a high level of predictability can be difficult to achieve. To increase our understanding, we follow the same basic steps in an investigation.
6Science Is A MethodAn organized and logical approach to scientific research. The following are guidelines to problem solving.
7Steps In The Scientific Method Additions to the flowchart at right:1. Before a problem can be identified, an observation must be made.2. If experiments and observations do not support the hypothesis, then the hypothesis must be rejected.
8To Ask A QuestionWe often begin with observations, using the senses to gather information about the world. These lead to questions.
9Form A HypothesisThis is a possible explanation or solution to a problem based on close and careful observation or on known facts about similar events.
10Test The HypothesisUsually done by performing an experiment, a procedure that is carried out according to certain guidelines.
11VariablesFactors that canbe changed in anexperiment.
12Two Types of VariableIndependent: Factors that can be changed by the person performing the experiment.Dependent: Variables that change as a result of a change in independent variables.Usually only one independent variable is tested in an experiment.
13Control GroupA control has the same conditions as the experiment except for the variable being tested. An experiment that contains a control is a controlled experiment.
14Draw ConclusionsIf the hypothesis fits the known facts, it may be accepted as true.If the results differ from what was expected, the hypothesis may be changed or discarded.
15This Leads ToNew questions, further study, new knowledge, and new methods of inquiry.
16Scientific Measurements and Analysis Measurement is an important method of gathering information and is the comparison of an object or event with a standard unit.Scientific standards of measurement follow the International System of Units, or SI (see p. 870).
17Accuracy and Precision Accuracy – How close a measurement is to the true value of the thing being measured.Precision – The exactness of the measurement.
19Observations and Models You can’t experiment on everything, so we often make further observations and then test the hypothesis by comparing it to the evidence.
20ModelsA description, representation, or imitation of an object, system, process, or concept.Many kinds (physical, graphical, conceptual, mathematical, computer, etc.).
21Acceptance of Scientific Ideas Conclusions are introduced to the scientific community and undergo review and testing before the ideas are accepted.Voltaire
22Publication of Results and Conclusions Results are commonly presented in scientific journals (written in a standard format) or at professional meetings.Galileo Galilei
23Peer ReviewThe process in which several experts on a topic review another expert’s work before the work gets published. This reduces experimental bias and ensures that valid results are published.
24Scientific TheoryAfter an idea has been tested and reaches general acceptance, it may help form a theory, an explanation that is consistent with all existing tests and observations.Charles Darwin
25LawsTheories are often based on scientific laws, general statements that explain how the natural world behaves under certain conditions and for which no exceptions have been found.
26Theories are NOT guesses! They can be changed if conflicting information is discovered in the future.
27Importance of Interdisciplinary Science The exchange of ideas between different fields of science allows us to identify explanations that fit a wide range of evidence, and the explanation is more likely to be accurate.
28Science and SocietyAdvances in science can have important and lasting effects. It is also used to develop new technologies, which may solve problems or create new ones.
29ConclusionScience is different from other forms of human endeavor in that the goal of science is to explain natural phenomena based on the ideas that nature is understandable and predictable.
30Conclusion The steps of the scientific method are: Observation Asking a questionForming a hypothesisFurther observations or testingOrganize and analyze dataSupport or reject the hypothesisDraw conclusionsPublish results
31ConclusionScientific thought can change as new information is collected because this can lead to either the development of a theory or disproving or modifying an hypothesis.
32ConclusionScience affects society because it is a part of society and scientific advances influence society by introducing new ideas and technologies, for both good and ill.