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Introduction to Earth Science

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Earth Science"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Earth Science
Earth Science Chapter 1

2 What is science? A way of learning about the natural world
The knowledge gained through that learning process Earth Science Chapter 1

3 Skills scientists use Observing Inferring Predicting
Using your senses to gather information Inferring Explaining or interpreting observations Based on reasoning, but not always right Predicting Making a forecast of what will happen Based on past experience or evidence Earth Science Chapter 1

4 Scientific Attitudes Habits of successful scientists Curiosity Honesty
Open-mindedness Skepticism Creativity Earth Science Chapter 1

5 Hypothesis Possible explanation for a set of observations
Must be testable Must be based on past experience Earth Science Chapter 1

6 Controlled experiment
Tests hypothesis under strict conditions Only one thing can change or be different in the experiment Earth Science Chapter 1

7 Variable What changes during an experiment Earth Science Chapter 1

8 Manipulated variable What the scientist changes
Also called the independent variable Earth Science Chapter 1

9 Responding variable Changes because of the manipulated variable
Measured by the scientist Also called dependent variable Earth Science Chapter 1

10 Data Facts, figures, and other evidence gathered by observation
Earth Science Chapter 1

11 Scientific theory Well-tested scientific concept that explains a lot of observations Earth Science Chapter 1

12 Scientific law Describes what is expected to happen every time under a particular set of conditions Has been repeatedly tested and found to be true Doesn’t explain, just provides pattern Earth Science Chapter 1

13 Discuss What is science? Explain three skills that scientists use.
How do scientific theories differ from scientific laws? Can you make an inference without having made any observations? Earth Science Chapter 1

14 Earth Science The study of Earth and of the universe around it
Assumes that the causes of natural events, or phenomena, can be discovered through careful observations and experimentation Earth Science Chapter 1

15 System Group of parts that work together as a whole
A change in one part affects the other parts Earth Science Chapter 1

16 Structure of the Earth System
Atmosphere Mixture of gases that surround Earth Hydrosphere Oceans, lakes, rivers, and ice Lithosphere Earth’s solid, rocky outer layer Biosphere All living things in air, in ocean, on land, beneath land surface Earth Science Chapter 1

17 Energy The ability to do work or cause change
Constantly moves from one part of Earth’s system to another Matter does this too Earth Science Chapter 1

18 Constructive forces Shape Earth’s surface by building mountains and landmasses Earth Science Chapter 1

19 Destructive forces Shape Earth’s surface by wearing away mountains and other structures Earth Science Chapter 1

20 Branches of Earth Science
Geology Oceanography Meteorology Astronomy Environmental Science Earth Science Chapter 1

21 Geology Study of origin, history, processes, and structure of the solid Earth Explore Earth’s crust for resources like coal, oil, and natural gas Study forces within Earth to predict earthquakes and volcanic activity Study fossils to learn about the past Earth Science Chapter 1

22 Oceanography Study of the Earth’s oceans (cover ¾ of Earth’s surface)
Work on research ships Study waves, tides and ocean currents Explore the ocean floor to research history or find mineral deposits Earth Science Chapter 1

23 Meteorology Study of the Earth’s atmosphere
Use satellites, radar, and other technology to study atmospheric conditions that produce weather Weather observers measure wind speed, temperature, rainfall, etc. to make weather maps Use weather maps, satellite images, and computer models to forecast weather Study climate – weather patterns over long periods of time Earth Science Chapter 1

24 Astronomy Study of the universe beyond Earth
One of the oldest branches of Earth Science Ancient Babylonians charted positions of stars and planets years ago Use Earth- and space-based telescopes, rovers, and space probes to study the sun, the moon, the solar system, and the universe. Earth Science Chapter 1

25 Environmental Science
Study the ways in which humans interact with their environment Newest branch of Earth Science Study use of natural resources, pollution, and the health of plant and animal species Study the effects of industries and technologies on the environment Earth Science Chapter 1

26 Model Something that represents a system or a concept
Helps people study and understand something that is complex or that can’t be observed directly Earth Science Chapter 1

27 Types of models Physical – 3D models that can be touched
Graphical – maps, charts, etc. Conceptual – verbal or graphical Represent how a system works or is organized Mathematical – equations that represent systems or processes Computer – represent simple or complex processes or systems Can be used to perform experiments Earth Science Chapter 1

28 Discuss What are the main ideas of Earth science?
What are the five branches of Earth science? Why are models useful in Earth science? What type of Earth scientist would probably study the effects of human activities on coral reefs? Explain. Earth Science Chapter 1

29 Technology Improves the way people live
How people change the world to meet their needs or to solve problems Earth Science Chapter 1

30 Science and technology
Studies natural world Done by scientists Technology Changes the natural world Done by engineers Earth Science Chapter 1

31 Technology throughout history
Tools Stone, then metal Spears, axes, spades More stable food supply Machines Larger food supply grown Communications Global sharing of information Earth Science Chapter 1

32 Discuss What is technology?
Compare and contrast science and technology. What effect does a new technology have on society? Earth Science Chapter 1

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