Presentation on theme: "Classification grouping of different types of organisms based upon similarities in structure and evolutionary relationships."— Presentation transcript:
1 Classificationgrouping of different types of organisms based upon similarities in structure and evolutionary relationships
2 WHY CLASSIFY?In order to more easily study the unity and diversity of living organisms in an organized manner, biologists classify organismsThis means that they group organisms together based on their common characteristicsPhysical structure is often the primary basis for biological classification
3 Early classification Animals & Plants With the discovery of the MICROSCOPE in the 1600’s many new organisms were discoveredThis was the basis for the change in the classification systemNow DNA is providing a more accurate way to classify organisms.
4 BIONOMIAL NOMENCLATURE Carolus Linneaus devised binomial nomenclature(2 names in Latin) Genus-Speciesex. scientific name of humans Homo sapiensHomo is the genus name sapiens is the species nameBoth have to be printed in italics or underlined-Genus is ALWAYS capitalized
5 MODERN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM: DOMAINKINGDOMPHYLLUMCLASSORDERFAMILYGENUSSPECIES
6 DEAR KING PHILIP CAME OVER FOR GOOD SOUP HOW TO REMEMBER THAT:DEAR KING PHILIP CAME OVER FOR GOOD SOUP
7 KINGDOMS: The 6 Kingdom System is based on the following criteria: 1. Presence or absence of a nuclear membrane2. Unicellularity versus multicellularity3. Type of nutrition
8 Deep Water Hydrothermal Vent Domain ArachaeDeep Water Hydrothermal VentDead SeaVolcano
9 ArchaebacteriaProkaryotic (no nucleus )most primitive and often live in extreme environmentsThere are 3 types: salt loving, heat loving & methane lovingunicellularReproduce asexuallySome are heterotrophic and some are autotrophic
10 Kingdom Monera (Eubacteria) bacteria and blue green algaehave a primitive cell structureno organized nucleus or nuclear membrane (Prokaryotic)Unicellular, reproduce asexuallySome are autotrophic (sulfur bacteria) and some are heterotrophicE. coli, Staph, AnthraxAbout 4,000 named species
14 Kingdom ProtistaEukaryotic. Most are unicellular (some multi-cellular) organisms with plant or animal-like characteristicsexamples include protozoa such as Euglena, Paramecium, Amoeba and all algae except the blue-greenhave a true nucleus and nuclear membraneClassification of Protists: Most protozoa can move and are divided into phyla based on their means of LOCOMOTION (movement): cilia (little hairs), flagella (whip-like tail), pseudopod (false foot)Can reproduce sexually or asexuallySome are autotrophic, some are heterotrophicAbout 80,000 named species
16 Animal-like ProtistsOften animal like Protists are called PROTOZOAThey can live in fresh or salt water, in the soil, or in the bodies of other organismsPlant-like Protists:Plant-like Protists are commonly called ALGAE, diatoms or phytoplanktonThey contain chloroplasts and are therefore AUTOTROPHIC
17 Plant and Animal like Protists The Euglena:exhibits both animal-like and Plant-like characteristicscontains chloroplasts, which are involved in PHOTOSYNTHESIScontains a flagellum, which is used for LOCOMOTIONeuglena may be autotrophic or heterotrophic depending on the environmentIn a light environment euglena would be AUTOTROPHICIn a dark environment the euglena would be HETEROTROPHIC
19 KINGDOM FUNGI examples include yeasts, mildews, molds, and mushrooms Eukaryotic, all are multi-cellular except for yeast which is unicellularAll absorb digested food from the external environment (heterotrophic) – do not require sunlight and are often found in dark, moist placesSome reproduce asexually by budding others reproduce sexually with sporesTypically live in moist, dark environments
21 Kingdom PlantaeMulticellular, eukaryotic - possess chloroplasts and cell wallsAutotrophic, make their own food through photosynthesisReproduce sexually (see Gizmo) but can sometimes be asexual, like strawberry runners or by taking clippingsCan be vascular (meaning they have xylem and phloem tubes to transport substances) such as trees, ferns, and flowersCan be nonvascular such as mossesAbout 270,000 named species
25 GymnospermsGymnosperms are a taxonomic class that includes plants whose seeds are not enclosed in an ovule (like a pine cone). Gymnosperm means as "naked seed". By definition, fruits are the structures that develop from maturing flower ovaries, and seeds develop from ovules inside the ovaries. Therefore, since gymnosperms have no ovaries, they do not produce real fruits, at least not in the botanical sense. Because no fruit tissue surrounds gymnosperm seeds, the seeds are said to be "naked." When early scientists wanted to express the term "naked seed" using word roots from classical Greek, they chose gymnos, which means "naked," and sperma, which means "seed," and came up with "gymnosperm." This group is often referred to as softwoods. Gymnosperms usually have needles that stay green throughout the year and scale-like coverings on the branches. Examples are pines, cedars, spruces and firs. Some gymnosperms do drop their leaves - ginkgo, dawn redwood, and bald cypress, to name a few.
27 AngiospermsFlowering, seed-bearing plants. From the greek Angeion meaning “receptacle or vessel” and sperma, meaning “seed”. Seeds with 2 cotyledons are dicots, di meaning “2”. Seeds with only one cotyledon are called monocots, with mono meaning “one”. Angiosperms are a taxonomic class of plants in which the mature seed is surrounded by the ovule (think of an apple).
29 Monocot vs Dicot Dicot: Monocot: Single cotyledon Two cotyledons Netted veinsPetals in multiples of 4 or 5’sVascular bundles in a radial patternMonocot:Single cotyledonParallel veinsPetals in multiples of 3’sVascular bundles random
30 Kingdom AnimaliaEukaryotic, multi-cellular organisms which ingest their food – heterotrophicMost reproduce sexually, but some reproduce asexually through budding such as a hydra or through regeneration, such as a starfish