Presentation on theme: "Taxonomy: Classification of Living Things Defined as: The branch of biology that deals with the classification and naming of living things."— Presentation transcript:
Taxonomy: Classification of Living Things Defined as: The branch of biology that deals with the classification and naming of living things
Classification Categories Animal Taxonomy –Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Silk Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Plant Taxonomy –Division replaces Phylum
Binomial Nomenclature Definition: a system for naming organisms based upon two words Naming of organisms used to be extremely confusing –many organisms had multiple, multiple names Linnaeus “streamlines” by giving each organism a Genus and species name –i.e., Homo sapiens Eliminates the confusion of so-called “common naming”
Modern Taxonomy Theory of Evolution serves as the basis for modern taxonomic methods –Species: group of like individuals who can breed with each other and produce fertile offspring species separated for periods of time become different species base upon mutations Phylogeny –evolutionary history of a species or a group of organisms –similar to a family tree
What Things Do We Use to Classify? Structural Information –skeletal, leaves, etc. Biochemical Information –DNA, RNA, protein structure, etc. Cytological Information –cell structure, chromosome number, etc. Embryological Information –structure in early stages of develpment Behavior Information –mating calls in crickets, etc.
What are the Kingdoms? “Old School” (Kingdoms) –Monera –Protista –Fungi –Plantae –Animalia “New School” (Domains) –Archaebacteria –Eubacteria –Eukaryote Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia
Archaebacteria Live in hostile environments Most in oxygen-free environments Unicellular & prokaryotic Examples –Methanogens –Halophiles –Thermoacidophiles
Eubacteria Make up the majority of modern bacteria Most are unicellular –chains or colonies Prokaryotic Most heterotrophic Disease-causing Cyanobacteria
Protista Most are unicellular –some colonial and multicellular Eukaryotic Heterotrophic are protozoa Phototrophic are algae
Fungi Includes molds, yeasts, mushrooms, etc. Function as either parasites or decomposers of dead matter Most multicellular, some unicellular Eukaryotic Have cell walls but of different chemical structure than plants (chitin v. cellulose) Cannot photosynthesize Eat like flies!
Plantae Include mosses, ferns, liverworts, and seed plants All have cell walls as part of cell structure Most all are photosynthetic
Animalia More species in this kingdom than all others All are multicellular with a higher level of organization
Plant Phyla: Bryophyte Bryophyte –Photosynthetic, chiefly terrestrial, nonvascular plants. Examples: mosses, liverworts, and hornworts Filicinophyta –Flowerless, vascular plant that reproduces by the means of spores. Examples: ostrich fern, grape fern Coniferophyta – Cone-bearing gymnosperms most are substantial trees. Examples: pine trees Angiospermphyta –Flowering plants; plants which carry their seeds inside an ovary. Examples: Grass, dasies, lilies, roses, tulips, geraniums, peas, sunflowers, apples, cherries, and grapes are some common angiosperm