Presentation on theme: "Diversity in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya (except for animals)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Diversity in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya (except for animals)
2 Introduction Life developed on earth 3.1-3.8 billion years ago The first living organisms were simple cells with little internal structures and primitive metabolism (prokaryotes)All living species evolved from them.
3 IntroductionThere are between 8 and 20 million existing species. Less than 2 million have been namedTaxonomy = classification systemLinnaeus classification system based upon structural similarities between species.Modern classification system based upon evolutionary relationships (determined by DNA sequencing).
4 Classification categories domainkingdom - a group of related phylaphylum (plural = phyla) - a group of related classes.class - a group of related ordersorder - a group of related familiesfamily - a group of related generagenus (plural = genera) - a group of related speciesSpecies - a kind of living organism . All organisms who can potentially reproduce together under natural conditions and produce fertile offspring.
5 Naming speciesBinominal nomenclature (two names)The scientific name of a species is formed by the genus name followed by species nameHomo sapiens Canis familiaris
6 3 Domains Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Includes blue-green algae The Eukarya are divided into 4 Kingdoms:Plants, Fungi, Animals and ?Protista?
7 Biology by Krogh: The term protist is a label of convenience rather than a label that reflectsevolutionary reality….It actually refers to manydifferent evolutionary lines of organisms.Recent studies of protist DNA and ultrastructure has shown that the protists are far more diverse than had been previously thought. They probably should be classified in several kingdom-level taxa. We retain the word "protist" as a convenient term to mean "eukaryote that isn't a plant, animal, or fungus."University of California Berkeley Museum of Paleontology 2011
8 University of California Berkeley Museum of Paleontology 2011: The 12 kingdoms
10 Domains Bacteria & Archaea Domain EukaryaDomains Bacteria & ArchaeaKingdom ?Protista?Kingdom PlantaeKingdom FungiKingdom AnimaliaCells TypeProkaryoticEukaryoticNumber of CellsUnicellular or ColonialMulticellularType of NutritionAutotrophic orHeterotrophicAutotrophicHeterotrophic (Saprophytic)Heterotrophic (ingestion)Cell WallCell Wall or No Cell WallCell Wall (Cellulose)Cell Wall (Chitin)No Cell WallExamplesBacteria & Blue-Green Bacteria (algae)Protozoa & some algaeSeaweeds, some algae, mosses, vascular plantsMushrooms, moldsHumans, fish, insects
11 Cell Types:Prokaryotic: small, simple cells which lack a nucleus and other cell structuresEukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and internal structures
12 Number of cells:Unicellular-one celled organismMulticellular-many cells that function as a unit. Individual cells do not survive on their own.Colony- a group of cells which are attached to each other, but each cell could survive on its own.
13 Type of Nutrition:Autotrophic- an organism that make its own food, usually by photosynthesis.Heterotrophic- an organism that does not make its own food, it consumes other organisms by either ingesting them or by decomposing them( saprophytes).
14 Cell wall:material secreted by the cellexternal to the plasma membraneChemical composition varies by kingdom
15 Domain Bacteria Bacteria, includes Cyanobacteria (Blue Green Algae). Prokaryotic organismsUnicellular or colonialAutotrophic (chemosynthesis or photosynthesis) or heterotrophicCell wallReproduce by cell division. Also have sexual recombination.Bacteria decompose dead bodies and cause disease
16 Examples of blue-green algae: Oscillatoria, Nostoc.
18 Domain Archaea (formerly Archaebacteria) Prokaryotic Some but not all live under extreme conditionsThere are basic differences between the biochemistry of Archaea and Bacteria.
19 Domain Eukarya Kingdom. Protista Domain Eukarya Kingdom ?Protista? (very heterogeneous – not a real group))Eukaryotic cellsUnicellular and colonial organismsSome do have a cell wall, some do not.1. Plant-like protistaAutotrophic (photosynthesis): Euglena, Diatom.2. Animal-like protista, called Protozoa.. Move to catch food: Amoeba-pseudopodia. Paramecium-cilia.3. Fungus-like protista, saprophytes.
20 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Fungi Multi-cellular, Eukaryotic cellsHeterotrophic-decomposersCell wallHyphae - microscopic, branching filaments, which take food from the substrateMycelium – the whole group of hyphaeSeveral phyla of fungi: mushrooms, puffballs, rusts, bread mold, yeast, bracket fungus, ring worm
21 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Plantae EukaryoticMulticellularAutotrophicCell wall made of celluloseThe plant kingdom is divided into many phyla, but there are three groups of phyla:1. Algae (but are these in the kingdom Plantae, or their own kingdom(s)?)2.Primitive Land Plants3.Vascular Plants
22 Textbook: Red, brown, and green algae are in the Protista kingdom Lab manual: Red, brown and green algae are in the Plant kingdom (see table on page 96)UC Berkeley: Red, brown and green algae are in separate kingdoms.
23 Algae (except for the blue-green algae) Filamentous body or flat, thin bodyEukaryotic, cells with cell wall and chloroplastsUnicellular or colonialPhotosyntheticDo not have vascular tissuesMost live in water
24 Examples of Algae1. Green - fresh water, salt water, wet land: Spirogyra, Ulva2. Red algae - deep ocean: Polysiphonia3. Brown algae - ocean, coastal, huge seaweeds: (kelp) [Fucus].
25 Primitive Land Plants [Non-Vascular] They do not have vascular tissues, so are smallThey do have leaf-like, stem- like, and root-like structures.Examples: mosses, liverworts, and hornworts
26 Vascular Plants or Tracheophytes Have vascular tissue:Xylem – transports water and mineralsPhloem - transports organic matter, mainly sugarThey have true roots, stems, and leavesThey are grouped by their reproductive structures.
27 Vascular plants: Seedless Plants – primitive leaves, roots and stems. -they make spores, do not make seeds-require water for reproduction-Examples: Fern, horsetail2. Seed plants-produce seeds-produce pollen- do not require water for reproduction
28 Vascular Seed Plants 1. Gymnosperms- naked seeds in cones *Do not have flowers or fruit*Examples: Cycads, Ginkgos, and Conifers2. Angiosperms*Produce flowers [pollinated by wind, insects, birds, etc.]*After fertilization, part of the flower develops into a fruit.*Within the fruit the seeds develop.
29 Phylum Angiospermae 1.Class Monocots. One cotyledon inside of the seed, narrow leaves with parallel veins, and flower parts in multiples of 3 or 6.Grasses and grains (corn, rice, wheat).2.Class Dicots.Seeds with two cotyledons, broad leaves with netted veins, and flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5.Beans, peas, rose, etc.