Presentation on theme: "Mrs. Degl1 Definition of Life & Classifying it The properties or qualities that distinguishes living organisms from dead organisms and inanimate matter."— Presentation transcript:
Mrs. Degl1 Definition of Life & Classifying it The properties or qualities that distinguishes living organisms from dead organisms and inanimate matter are the living functions. They are: 1.Nutrition 2.Transport 3.Respiration 4.Excretion 5.Synthesis 6.Regulation 7.Growth 8.Reproduction Non-living things do not possess these functions. Living Non-living
Mrs. Degl2 Nutrition- the activities of an organism by which it obtains materials from it’s environment and processes them for its use Respiration – processes which provide the energy necessary for maintenance of all the life functions Transport – the absorption and distribution of materials within an organism Excretion – the removal of cellular waste products Synthesis – chemical activities by which large molecules are built from smaller ones Regulation – the control and coordination of the various activities of an organism Growth – an increase in cell size or numbers Reproduction – involves the production of new individuals. Species survival is dependant on this.
Mrs. Degl3 Metabolism is the total of all of the functions/activities needed to sustain life. Homeostasis – Life functions are carried out by an organism in a way that results in the maintenance of a stable internal environment. Homeostasis means stability and balance in the organism. In order to study the unity and diversity of life in an organized manner, biologists must classify organisms. The most recent way to classify life is into 6 (new kingdom is controversial) kingdoms. The system is called Taxonomy. Each kingdom is divided into phyla, which distinguishes different structures. This modern system of classification was created by Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778). It is called bionomial nomenclature.
4 1.Names must be Latin or Latinized and are printed in italics. Like everything else printed in italics, they are underlined when handwritten. 2.The genus name (the Homo in Homo sapiens) is capitalized and must be a single word. 3.The species name ( sapiens in Homo sapiens) can be either a single word or a compound word (a new word made up of two words). 4. Credit for authorship of names will be given to the person who first publishes it with an accurate and recognizable description of the organism. Taxonomy Rules:
Mrs. Degl5 Linnaeus came up with a hierarchy of ways to classify plants and animals. The different levels are called taxa. The different taxa are: Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Kingdom is the broadest of the taxa, all animals are in Kingdom Animalia. All plants are in Kingdom Plantae. Phyla are slightly less broad. There are usually a few phyla in each kingdom. Species is the most restricted. King Philip Came Over For Good Soup
Mrs. Degl6 Kingdom NameCharacteristics Monera Most primitive cell structure; no cell membrane; NO NUCLEUS Protista Mostly unicellular; plant or animal characteristics Fungi Organized cells; multinucleated; absorb digested food Plant Multicellular; photosynthetic Animal Multicellular; ingest food; possess movement Archaea (This is the new Kingdom. It will not be on your test) Unicellular. Adapted to unusual and/or extreme conditions, such as very hot, very salty, or no-oxygen environments
Mrs. Degl7 Kingdoms and Phylums Kingdom Monera 1. Phylum Blue Green Algae photosynthetic; have ribosomes; produce oxygen 2. Phylum Bacteria decomposers; pathogens; has cell walls Bleu Green Algae Escherichia coli bacteria
Mrs. Degl8 Kingdom Protista 1. Phylum Protozoa mostly unicellular; animal-like movement and nutrition 2. Phylum Algae unicellular; colonizes; photosynthetic; has cell walls 3. Phylum Slime Mold similar to protozoa; reproduce by spores Kingdoms and Phylums continued… Protozoa Paramecium Red Algae Slime Mold Protozoa Amoeba
Mrs. Degl9 Kingdoms and Phylums continued… Kingdom Fungi. No Phylums
10 Kingdoms and Phylums continued… Kingdom Plant 1. Phylum Bryophytes no vascular tissue, roots, stems, or leaves 2. Phylum Tracheophytes has vascular tissue, roots, stems, and leaves moss This Phylum contains the trees and flowering plants
Mrs. Degl11 Kingdoms and Phylums continued… Kingdom Animal 1.Phylum Coelenterates (hydra, jellyfish) two cell layers; hollow body cavity; non-moving 2.Phylum Annelids (earthworm, leech) worms with segmented bodies; openings on both ends hydra