Presentation on theme: "HIV Basics. What is HIV? Human Immunodeficiency Virus ◦ Two Strains HIV-1 HIV-2 Kills special blood cells that help fight off infections ◦ CD4+ Virus."— Presentation transcript:
What is HIV? Human Immunodeficiency Virus ◦ Two Strains HIV-1 HIV-2 Kills special blood cells that help fight off infections ◦ CD4+ Virus that can lead to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
AIDS Final stage of infection by the HIV virus Defined by the number for CD4+ cells ◦ Absolute count < 200 cells/mL or ◦ If CD4+ cells < 14% total lymphocytes OR Hallmark infections ◦ Examples: Kaposi’s sarcoma, pneumocystis pneumonia
NOT TRANSMITTED BY: Air or water. Insects, including mosquitoes. ◦ CDC studies say no Saliva, tears, or sweat. ◦ There is no documented case of HIV being transmitted by spitting. Casual contact like shaking hands or sharing dishes. Closed-mouth or “social” kissing.
History Where did HIV come from? ◦ Monkeys ◦ Most likely from hunting & handling the meat US Patient Zero Theory ◦ Rumor/unfounded Patient zero was a flight attendant who got AIDS by having sex with a monkey in Africa ◦ Likely part of a group of highly sexually active men who participated in spreading the disease
Citation:Auerbach,.D.Darrow W, Jaffe, H.Curran, J. Cluster of cases of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The American Journal of Medicine Volume 76, Issue 3, Pages 487-492AuerbachDarrowJaffeurranVolume 76, Issue 3
TRENDS IN ANNUAL AGE-ADJUSTED* RATE OF DEATH DUE TO HIV INFECTION BY SEX, UNITED STATES, 1987 − 2009 Note: For comparison with data for 1999 and later years, data for 1987 − 1998 were modified to account for ICD- 10 rules instead of ICD-9 rules. *Standard: age distribution of 2000 US population
Why Stigma At the Beginning Gay Related Immune Deficiency (GRID) Gay Cancer Initially untreatable and transmission method unknown
HIV infections by risk group http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance /incidence.htm http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance /incidence.htm
Why Stigma Now? Promiscuous Drug users People who make bad decisions and their partners Race
HIV infections The new infection rate among blacks/African americans was 7.9 times higher than whites. ◦ 50% of these infections are MSM ◦ Fastest increasing group is black females The new infection rates in Latino/Latinas was 3 times higher ◦ ~70% of these infections are MSM
US AIDS Spread Map http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/r esources/slides/dot/index.htm
Is the risk of contracting HIV with all sexual encounters equal?
Spread & Risk Not using a condom when having sex with a person who has HIV. All unprotected sex with someone who has HIV contains some risk. However: ◦ Unprotected anal sex is riskier than unprotected vaginal sex. ◦ Among men who have sex with other men, unprotected receptive anal sex is riskier than unprotected insertive anal sex.
Spread & Risk Unprotected oral sex can also be a risk for HIV transmission, but it is a much lower risk than anal or vaginal sex.
Sex Risk Hierarchy Unprotected Receptive Anal Sex>Unprotected Insertive Anal Sex Unprotected Insertive Anal Sex> Unprotected Vaginal Sex Unprotected Vaginal Sex> Unprotected Oral Sex
Spread & Risk IDU Sharing ◦ Needles ◦ Syringes ◦ Rinse water, ◦ “Works” other equipment used to prepare illicit drugs for injection.