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CHAPTER THREE OVERVIEW

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER THREE OVERVIEW"— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER THREE OVERVIEW
SECTION BUSINESS AND THE INTERNET Disruptive Technology Evolution of the Internet Accessing Internet Information Providing Internet Information SECTION EBUSINESS Ebusiness Basics Ebusiness Models Organizational Strategies for Ebusiness Measuring ebusiness Success Ebusiness Benefits and Challenges New Trends in Ebusiness: Egovernment and Mcommerce

2 DISRUPTIVE VERSUS SUSTAINING TECHNOLOGY
Disruptive technology – a new way of doing things that initially does not meet the needs of existing customers Sustaining technology – produces an improved product customers are eager to buy

3 EVOLUTION OF THE INTERNET
The Internet began as an emergency military communications system operated by the Department of Defense Gradually the Internet moved from a military pipeline to a communication tool for scientists to businesses

4 EVOLUTION OF THE WORLD WIDE WEB
The Internet’s impact on information Easy to compile Increased richness and reach Improved content The Internet makes it possible to perform business in ways not previously imaginable It can also cause a digital divide

5 EVOLUTION OF THE WORLD WIDE WEB
World Wide Web (WWW) – a global hypertext system that uses the Internet as its transport mechanism Web 2.0 Mashups Web 3.0 Hypertext transport protocol (HTTP) – the Internet standard that supports the exchange of information on the WWW

6 ACCESSING INTERNET INFORMATION
Four tools for accessing Internet information Intranet – internalized portion of the Internet, protected from outside access, for employees Extranet – an intranet that is available to strategic allies Portal – website that offers a broad array of resources and services Kiosk – publicly accessible computer system that allows interactive information browsing

7 PROVIDING INTERNET INFORMATION
Three common forms of service providers Internet service provider (ISP) –provides individuals and other companies access to the Internet Online service provider (OSP) – offers an extensive array of unique Web services Application service provider (ASP) – offers access over the Internet to systems and related services that would otherwise have to be located in organizational computers

8 What’s a URL? Uniform Resource Locator
It provides not only location of a file but also how to access that file your browser, uses the URL to retrieve a file from the host computer where it is stored Ex: http: is the protocol hypertext transfer protocol Next is the host address, i.e., Ubalt is university of Baltimore Edu..i mplies education

9 E-commerce is changing everything
Electronic commerce (e-commerce) – commerce, but it is commerce accelerated and enhanced by IT Build powerful relationships with customers Build powerful relationships with suppliers Build powerful relationships with partners

10 EGOVERNMENT AND MCOMMERCE

11 E-COMMERCE BUSINESS MODELS
There are 2 that are most prominent Business to Business (B2B) – when a business sells products and services to customers who are primarily other businesses Business to Consumer (B2C) – when a business sells products and services to individuals McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

12 E-COMMERCE BUSINESS MODELS
B2B is where most of the money is About 97% B2C is the most well-known Amazon, eBay, etc. B2B and B2C differences require that you know your customers well, develop the right marketing mix, and move money easily McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

13 Who Are Your Customers? Business to Business Business to Consumer
Other businesses Business to Consumer Individuals Each is different and has different needs and wants McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

14 B2C: Convenience Versus Specialty
Lower priced Purchased frequently Example: common food items Specialty Higher priced Purchased less frequently Example: Stereos, computers McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

15 B2C: Commoditylike and Digital
Same no matter where you purchase it Examples: books, music, movies Price and ease of ordering are important Digital Purchased and delivered over the Internet Best product type for B2C e-commerce Examples: Music, software McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

16 B2C: Mass Customization
Mass customization – the ability of an organization to give its customers the opportunity to tailor its products or services Dell – customized computer purchases Apple iTunes – only the music you want (not necessarily the whole album) McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 B2B: MRO Versus Direct Maintenance, repair, and operations (MRO) materials (indirect materials) – materials necessary for running a company but do not relate to the company’s primary business activities Similar to convenience items in B2C Office supplies, repair parts, lubricating oils McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

18 MRO Materials Buyers in B2B make large purchases
Can then demand a discount (not true in B2C) Can team up with other buyers to create demand aggregation Demand aggregation – combining purchase requests from multiple buyers which justifies a larger discount McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

19 Direct Materials Direct materials – materials that are used in production in a manufacturing company or are placed on the shelf for sale in retail environments Relate directly to a company’s primary business activities Quality, quantity, and delivery timing are important McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

20 Direct Materials Buyers can participate in reverse auctions for direct materials Reverse auction – process in which a buyer posts its interests in buying items and sellers compete by submitting successively lower bids The lowest bidder wins McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

21 B2B: Horizontal Versus Vertical
B2B e-commerce takes advantage of e- marketplaces Electronic marketplace (e-marketplace) – interactive business providing a central market where multiple buyers and sellers can engage in e-commerce Horizontal e-marketplaces Vertical e-marketplaces McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

22 E-Marketplaces McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

23 Business to Consumer Need to determine your marketing mix
Marketing mix – set of marketing tools your organization will use to pursue its marketing objectives in reaching and attracting potential customers There are many such tools for B2C McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

24 B2C Marketing Mix Tools Registering with search engines Online ads
Viral marketing Affiliate programs McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

25 Registering with Search Engines
Some search engines will list your site for free Others charge a fee For an additional fee, your site can appear at top of a search list (every time) McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

26 Online Ads Online ads (banner ads) – small advertisements that appear on other sites Two variations are: Pop-up ad – small Web page advertisement that appears on your screen outside the current Web site Pop-under ad – pop-up ad you do not see until you close your current browser window McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

27 Viral Marketing Viral marketing – encourages users of a product or service supplied by a B2C business to encourage friends to join in as well Blue Mountain Arts (www.bluemountain.com) Send a card Card has link so the other person can send you a card back McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

28 Affiliate Programs Affiliate program – arrangement between two e- commerce sites that directs viewers from one site to another If viewers buy at the second site, the second site pays a small fee to the first site Usually a percentage of the sale McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

29 Affiliate Programs Click-throughs and conversion rates are important
Click-through – count of the number of people who visit one site and use an ad to get to another Conversion rate – percentage of potential customers who actually buy something McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

30 Business to Business Marketing
Much more personal Not usually done with generic ads designed for mass distribution Often take place in e-marketplaces McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

31 Business to Business Marketing
Once a contact is made, the relationship must be established This often requires face-to-face meetings Must also integrate the IT systems to the supplier business and customer business McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

32 MOVE MONEY EASILY & SECURELY
In e-commerce, most money moves electronically Security becomes very important McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

33 B2C Payment Systems Credit cards Financial cybermediaries
Electronic checks Electronic Bill Presentment and Payment Smart cards McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

34 Financial Cybermediaries
Financial cybermediary – Internet-based company that makes it easy for one person to pay another person or organization over the Internet PayPal (www.paypal.com) is the most well-known McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

35 Electronic Checks Electronic check – mechanism for sending money from your checking or savings account to another person or organization Many implementations Most common implementation is online banking McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

36 Electronic Bill Presentment & Payment
Electronic Bill Presentment and Payment (EBPP) – system that sends bills over the Internet and provides an easy-to-use mechanism (perhaps a button) to pay for them if the amount looks correct Available through Checkfree (www.checkfree.com) and Quicken (www.quicken.com) McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

37 Smart Cards Smart card – plastic card (the size of a credit card) that contains an embedded chip on which digital information can be stored and updated Debit cards are an implementation McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

38 B2C Payment Systems Must move money and other information such as shipping address Digital wallets can help Digital wallet – software and information Software provides transaction security Information includes delivery information and other forms of necessary information McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

39 Digital Wallets Can be…
Client-side – you create this digital wallet and keep it on your computer Server-side (also called a thin wallet) – an organization creates this for you and keeps it on its servers McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

40 B2B Payment Systems Business customers… Make large purchases
Will not pay with credit card or financial cybermediary Use financial EDI Pay for many purchases at once (perhaps the end of the month) McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

41 EDI Electronic data interchange (EDI) – direct computer- to-computer transfer of transaction information in standard business documents, such as invoices and purchase orders, in a standard format How businesses communicate with each other Used in e-marketplaces and VANs McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

42 Financial EDI Financial EDI – an electronic process used primarily within B2B for the payment of purchases This is electronic money in B2B Often occurs through an automated clearing house McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

43 Security: The Pervading Concern
Security is very important when moving money Some security measures… Encryption Secure Sockets Layers Secure Electronic Transactions Many, many others McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

44 Encryption Encryption – scrambles the contents of a file so that you can’t read it without having the right decryption key Often through public key encryption (PKE) – uses two keys: a public key for everyone and private key for only the recipient of the encrypted information McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

45 Public Key Encryption McGraw-Hill
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

46 Secure Sockets Layers Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)…
Creates a secure connection between a Web client and server Encrypts the information Sends the information over the Internet Denoted by lock icon on browser or https:// (notice the “s”) McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

47 Secure Electronic Transactions
Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) – transmission method that ensures transactions are legitimate as well as secure Helps verify use of a credit card, for example, by sending the transaction to the credit issuer as well as the seller/supplier McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

48 THE BROADENING OF E-GOVERNMENT
Electronic government (e-government) – use of digital technologies to transform government operations in order to improve efficiency, effectiveness, and service delivery Make the government click-and-mortar Click-and-mortar – Presence in the real world (mortar) and also in the virtual world (click) McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

49 E-Government Focuses Government to Government (G2G, intra-G2G)
Government to Business (G2B) Government to Consumer (G2C) International Government to Government (inter- G2G) McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

50 Government to Government
Government to government (G2G, intra-G2G) – e- commerce activities performed within a single nation’s government Vertical – up and down among federal, state, and local levels Horizontal – integration of agencies within a specific level McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

51 Government to Business
Government to Business (G2B) – e-commerce performed between a government and businesses Purchasing direct and MRO materials Soliciting bids for work Licensing applications Meeting regulations Many other applications McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

52 Government to Consumer
Government to consumer (G2C) – e-commerce performed between a government and its citizens or consumers Paying taxes Registering vehicles Providing information and services Student loans Many other applications McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

53 International Government to Government
International government to government (inter-G2G) – e-commerce performed between two or more governments Providing foreign aid Export and import transportation Many other applications McGraw-Hill © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

54 ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES FOR EBUSINESS
Primary business areas taking advantage of ebusiness include: Marketing/sales Financial services Procurement Customer service Intermediaries

55 MEASURING EBUSINESS SUCCESS
Most companies measure the traffic on a website as the primary determinant of the website’s success Clickstream data tracks the exact pattern of a consumer’s navigation through a website Website metrics include visitor metrics, exposure metrics, visit metrics, and hit metrics

56 EBUSINESS BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES
Ebusiness benefits include: Highly accessible Increased customer loyalty Improved information content Increased convenience Increased global reach Decreased cost Ebusiness challenges include: Protecting consumers Leveraging existing systems Increasing liability Providing security Adhering to taxation rules

57 EBUSINESS BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES
There are numerous advantages and limitations in ebusiness revenue models including: Transaction fees License fees Subscription fees Value-added fees Advertising fees

58 EGOVERNMENT AND MCOMMERCE
Mobile commerce - the ability to purchase goods and services through a wireless Internet-enabled device 58


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