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The Nixon Administration

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1 The Nixon Administration
Chapter 24, Section 1 Notes


3 Ch 24 Objectives #5 & #6 Summarize Nixon’s plans to lead the nation on a more conservative course Analyze Nixon’s efforts to win the support of Southern Democrats Describe the steps Nixon took to battle stagflation Examine the importance of Nixon’s visits to China and the Soviet Union

4 Main Idea and Terms/Names
Richard Nixon New Federalism Revenue Sharing Family Assistance Plan Southern Strategy Stagflation OPEC Realpolitik Détente SALT I Treaty President Richard Nixon tried to steer the country in a conservative direction and away from federal control

5 Nixon’s Goals #1 Size & Power of Federal Gov.
Limit the federal government Reduce its power Reverse Johnson’s liberal policies Restore America’s prestige and influence in the world Fix “Vietnam”

6 Nixon’s New Conservatism #1 Size & Power of Federal Gov.
Decrease the size and influence of the federal government New Federalism Distribute some federal power to state/local levels Revenue Sharing More financial freedom for local govts. State/local govts could spend their federal money how they saw fit

7 Nixon’s New Conservatism #2 Inefficiency of the welfare system
Welfare Reform Family Assistance Plan (FAP) Family of Four receives $1600/yr. Could also earn supplemental income Unemployed participants would have to take job training or any reasonable job Nixon’s bill was defeated Both liberals and conservatives attacked it.

8 Nixon’s New Conservatism #2 Inefficiency of the welfare system
New Federalism – two faces Nixon needed support of Democrats Wanted to reduce liberal programs Nixon couldn’t defeat some liberal programs Used Impoundment – withheld the necessary funds Federal courts ordered the end of impounding

9 Law and Order #3 Vietnam & Domestic Disorder
Election of 1968 – Nixon promised to get out of Vietnam and restore law and order Law and Order – FBI wiretapped liberals IRS audited anti-war and civil rights activists Nixon compiled “enemies list” VP – Spiro Agnew confronted the liberal media

10 Southern Strategy #4 Nixon’s reelection

11 Southern Strategy #4 Nixon’s reelection
Nixon tried to get support from white southern democrats who were unhappy with federal desegregation policies and a liberal supreme court Nixon favored slow desegregation, in 1969 he ordered the Dept. of Health, Ed, and Welfare to delay segregation in Miss. and SC ( Overturned by the Supreme Court) Desegregation though school busing became a civil rights issue ( Whites in Detroit and Boston opposed it) Nixon was opposed to it


13 Nixon and the Supreme Court #5 Liberalism of SC Justices
Nixon criticized Warren Court for being too liberal Four justices retired and Nixon chose replacements (conservatives) Nominated Warren Burger as Chief Justice

14 Nixon and the Economy #6 Stagflation & Recession
Stagflation – high inflation and high unemployment Johnson’s Great Society and the Vietnam war were funded with deficit spending Competition in world trade Flood of new workers Dependency on foreign oil – OPEC was formed and increased the price of oil

15 Nixon and the Economy #6 Stagflation & Recession
Nixon tries to reverse deficit spending Raised taxes and cut the budget Congress rejected plan Nixon tries to confront inflation Reduce amount of money in circulation Raise interest rates Nixon controlled wages and prices Recession continued

16 OPEC and War During the 1960’s the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) raised the price of oil The Six Days War in 1967 impacted prices The 1973 Yom Kippur War between Israel and Egypt and Syria rose prices The US sent massive military aid to Israel, Arab OPEC nations cut oil sales to the US (Oil Embargo) By 1974 price increased 4x Major gas lines and shortages in the US early, mid 1970’s


18 Nixon’s Foreign Policy
Nixon’s top priority was peace in Vietnam Significant advances in US relationships with China and Soviet Union

19 Nixon’s Foreign Policy
Kissinger – Secretary of State Realpolitik – “political realism” Foreign policy should be based on power NOT ideology If weak country falls to communism – ignore it! Departure from containment US should confront powerful nations Negotiations or military engagement

20 Nixon’s Foreign Policy #7. U.S. - China
Kissinger – Secretary of State Détente – more flexible approach to Communist nations Ease Cold War tensions Nixon visits China in 1972 Opened up diplomatic and economic ties Agreements – neither will dominate Pacific and Taiwan would eventually reunite with China

21 Nixon Visits China Since 1949 the US had not recognized the Communist Chinese Government “Ping-pong” diplomacy began in 1971 Nixon wanted to play the “China Card” and take advantage of the rift between the China and the USSR Nixon’s visit to China was symbolic and it opened up diplomatic and economic relations Both would cooperate and participate in scientific and cultural exchanges


23 Nixon’s Foreign Policy #8 U.S. Soviet Relations
Nixon visits Moscow, Soviet Union Nixon and Brezhnev sign SALT I Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty Limited number of intercontinental missiles 1972 “peace was at hand” in Vietnam Peace was still elusive


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