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January 21, 2011 What was Nixon’s Rise and Fall? Stagflation and Recession Nixon’s Foreign Policy Watergate Homework: Study (Quiz Section 1)

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Presentation on theme: "January 21, 2011 What was Nixon’s Rise and Fall? Stagflation and Recession Nixon’s Foreign Policy Watergate Homework: Study (Quiz Section 1)"— Presentation transcript:

1 January 21, 2011 What was Nixon’s Rise and Fall? Stagflation and Recession Nixon’s Foreign Policy Watergate Homework: Study (Quiz Section 1)

2 Richard Nixon Entered Office in 1969 Conservative Republican Tried to instill sense of order into a divided nation

3 THE 8 PROBLEMS 1.Size and power of the federal government 2.Inefficiency of the welfare system 3.Vietnam War and Domestic Disorder 4.Nixon’s Reelection 5.Liberalism of Supreme Court 6.Stagflation and Recession 7.U.S. – China Relations 8.U.S. – Soviet Relations

4 SIZE AND POWER OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT Main goal in Nixon’s agenda was to cut size and influence Believed Johnson gave too much responsibility to federal government with New Deal New Federalism – distribute a portion of federal power to state and local governments Give more financial freedom to local government Revenue Sharing Bill (State and Local Fiscal Assistance Act) – state and local governments could spend their money how they wanted with some limits

5 INEFFICIENCY OF THE WELFARE SYSTEM Family Assistance Plan (FAP) family of 4 with no outside income would get $1,600 a year with ability to earn $4,000 in supplemental income Unemployed would have to take job training and accept any work offered to them Presented the plan in conservative terms: Reduce government role Make recipients responsible for themselves Unsuccesfful: Both parties attacked it Payments too low Work requirement too stiff Conservatives objected to guaranteed income

6 TWO FACES OF NEW FEDERALISM Enhanced Some Programs: Increased federal spending for some programs Increased Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid payments Made Food Stamps more accessible Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Dismantled Others: Tried to eliminate the Job Corps Vetoed bill to fund Housing and Urban Development Impounded funding for programs Those affected – health, housing, & education Federal Courts ruled this unconstitutional Abolished Office of Economic Opportunity

7 VIETNAM WAR AND DOMESTIC DISORDER Battled the anti-war movement Promised to end Vietnam and mend the nation’s division Started withdrawal of U.S. troops and oversaw peace negotiations Began “law and order” policies that he promised his “silent majority” Illegally wiretapped left-wing individuals and Democratic Pary offices at the Watergate Office building CIA investigated and compiled documents on thousands of Americans (any who opposed the government policies) Used IRS to audit tax returns of antiwar and civil rights activists Built an “enemies list” Recruited VP Spiro Agnew to denounce opposition publically

8 Nixon’s Reelection (1972) Working to build a new conservative coalition Southern Strategy – tried to attract Southern Democrats The South was Democratic but were angry with their party Too liberal with Civil Rights and the Great Society Most backed Wallace in 1968 Election Nixon wanted to win those votes and will strive for them

9 NIXON SLOWS INTEGRATION Nixon lies on middle ground by denouncing immediate desegregation Worked to reverse several Civil Rights Policies Ordered Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to delay desegregation in school districts in SC and MI Supreme Court ordered Nixon to abide by Brown ruling Opposed extension of Voting Rights Act of 1965 – Congress voted to extend anyway Attempted to stop integration through busing Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education – school districts may bus students to other school districts to end the pattern of all-black or all-white education This was protested by many urban communities (in the North)

10 LIBERALISM OF SUPREME COURT JUSTICES In effort to get reelected in 1972, Nixon wanted to win over Southern Democrats Southern Strategy – appealing to their dislike of desegration Promised to place a Southerner on the Supreme Court Nixon criticized Warren Court for being too liberal Four justics left the bench through retirement during his first term Nixon quickly moved to put more conservative faces on the court Senate approved Warren Burger Three more will follow Nixon’s new court did not always take the conservative route – approved integration through busing

11 STAGFLATION AND RECESSION Between 1960’s and 1970’s the economy faced high inflation and high unemployment (Stagflation) Causes: Johnson’s funding the war and social programs through deficit spending Increased competition in world trade Dependency on foreign oil (Middle East) OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) Began raising prices of oil When U.S. supported Israel in Yom Kippur War, OPEC cut out of oil sales When sales resumed – they quadrupled the price

12 Stagflation Battle Reverse deficit spending – raise taxes and cut the budget Congress Refused Reduce amount of money in circulation by urging interest rates to be raised Drove the country into recession (slowdown of the economy) Price and wage controls Froze workers wages and prices of products for 90 days Inflation eased for a moment but recession continued

13 Kissinger and Realpolitik Kissinger’s New Policy – Realpolitik Political realism Foreign policy should be based on consideration of power, not ideals or moral principles If a country is weak, it is more practical to ignore that country (even if communist) Marked departure from confrontational policy of containment U.S. was to fully confront powerful nations through negotiation as well as military engagement

14 Nixon Shares Realpolitick Kissinger and Nixon develop policy of détente Aimed at easing Cold War tensions Nixon will go to the foreign nations peacefully to negotiate or discuss politics

15 U.S. – China Relations 1971 – NIxon goes to China to form a relationship Enormous symbolic value and success Resulted in agreements between China and U.S. Niether would try to dominate the Pacific Both would cooperate in settling disputes peacefully Agreed to scientific and cultural exchanges as well as to eventually reunite Taiwan with the mainland

16 U.S. – Soviet Relations May 1972 – Nixon headed to Moscow (the first U.S. president to visit the Soviet capital) Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) – meetings that would lead to the SALT I Treaty 5 year agreement to limit the number of ballistic missiles and submarine-launched missiles

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