3In November, 1969, Richard M. Nixon was elected president.
4Nixon wanted to turn America in a more conservative direction.
5Nixon wanted to limit the power of the federal government and reverse some of Johnson’s liberal policies of the Great Society programs.
6Nixon’s program to downsize the federal government by distributing a portion of federal power to state and local governments was known as New Federalism.
7State & Local Fiscal Assistance Act In past, federal government told state and local how to spend their federal money.Under revenue sharing - state and local governments could spend it as they saw fit.In 1972, the revenue-sharing bill, known as the State and Local Fiscal Assistance Act, became law.
8Nixon introduced a plan known as the Family Assistance Plan (FAP), that would make welfare recipients responsible for their own lives by giving a family of four with no income a federal check of $1,600 a year with the ability to earn an additional $4,000 in supplement income.
9Recipients would have to take job training and take any reasonable jobs offered them.
10The bill passed the House, but the Senate disapproved and the bill was defeated.
11Nixon’s New Federalism wore two faces. increased Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid paymentsmade food stamps more accessible.This won the support of the Democrat-controlled Congress.
12At the same time, Nixon tried unsuccessfully to eliminate the Job Corps and funding for HUD, (Housing and Urban Development).
13Nixon impounded, or withheld necessary operating funds for programs involving health, housing, and education.
14The federal courts ordered the release of the $15 billion in impounded funded ruling the use of impoundment as unconstitutional since Congress had the authority to decide how federal funds could be spent.
15One of the reasons Nixon was elected to office was his promise to end the war in Vietnam and help mend the divisions the war had caused in America.
16Nixon de-escalated troops in Vietnam and oversaw peace negotiations with North Vietnam.
17Nixon also began the “law and order” policies he promised his “silent majority”, those middle-class Americans who wanted order restored to America that had been caused by urban riots and antiwar demonstrations.
19To accomplish this, Nixon had the FBI to illegally wiretap left-wing individuals in the Democratic Party offices that led to the Watergate incident.
20The CIA compiled files on American dissidents, those objecting to the government’s policies.
21The Internal Revenue Service even audited the tax returns of antiwar and civil rights activists.
22Nixon even built a personal “enemies list” of prominent Americans that the administration harassed.
23Vice-president, Spiro T Vice-president, Spiro T. Agnew confronted the antiwar protesters and lashed out at the media.
24Agnew called the media and liberals “an effete [weak] corps of impudent snobs” and “nattering nabobs of negativism.”.
25Knowing he had won the 1968 election by a slim majority, Nixon looking to the 1972 presidential election tried to build conservative support in the South.
26Known as the Southern strategy, Nixon appealed to the southern conservative Democrats by promising to name a Southerner to the Supreme Court to help overturn some of the desegregation and liberal court decisions.
27Many Southern Democrats felt their party had grown too liberal during the Great Society and civil rights movement.
28To attract white voters in the South, President Nixon decided to slow the country’s desegregation by saying integration was a middle road course between instant integration and segregation forever.
29In direct violation of the Brown v In direct violation of the Brown v. Board of Education decision, Nixon tried to reverse several civil rights policies by ordering the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) to delay desegregation of schools in South Carolina and Mississippi.
30The Supreme Court ordered Nixon to abide by the Brown II ruling that called for the desegregation of schools “with all deliberate speed.”
31By 1972, nearly 90% of children in the South attended desegregated schools.
32To prevent further advances of the civil rights movement, Nixon opposed the extension of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 that added nearly one million African Americans to the voting rolls. Despite Nixon’s opposition, Congress extended the act.
33In 1971, the Supreme Court ruled in Swann v In 1971, the Supreme Court ruled in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education that school districts could bus students to other schools to end segregation.
34In Boston and Detroit, white students and parents protested busing.
35To halt desegregation of schools, Nixon urged Congress on national television to stop this practice.
36During Nixon’s first term, four justices including the liberal Chief Justice Earl Warren retired.
37In 1969, the Senate approved Nixon’s appointment of conservative Warren Burger as chief justice and three other conservative Supreme Court judges.
38Though the Supreme Court was now more conservative, their decisions were not.
39In 1971, the court ruled in favor of racial integration through busing.
40Between 1967 and 1973, the United States faced high inflation and high unemployment, a situation in the economy known as stagflation.
41One of the causes of stagflation, high inflation, was due to Johnson’s funding of Great Society programs and the Vietnam war through deficit spending.
42Another cause of stagflation was increased competition in international trade, and a flood of new workers including women and baby boomers.
56Nixon also tried to reduce the amount of money in circulation by urging the raising of interest rates. This drove the country into a mild recession and the economy slowed down.
57In 1971, Nixon tried to stop inflation by controlling prices and wages In 1971, Nixon tried to stop inflation by controlling prices and wages. He froze workers’ wages and businesses’ prices and fees for 90 days. Inflation eased for a short time, but the recession continued.
58January 23, 2012 What kind of foreign policies did Nixon have? Review of Friday (hand in essays)Finish Nixon’s Foreign PolicyStart discussing WatergateTomorrow we finish Watergate and Present “Modern History”Homework: quiz and notes on Watergate (section 2)
59To assist in foreign affairs, Nixon choose as special adviser, Henry Kissinger.
60Kissenger, later to become Nixon’s secretary of state, promoted realpolitik. In realpolitik, foreign policy should be based on power and not on ideals or moral principles.
61Kissenger felt if a country were weak, even if Communist, it should be ignored.
62Realpolitik was the opposite of containment that refused to recognize the major Communist countries.
63Realpolitik called for the confronting of the powerful nations of the world through negotiation and military engagement.
64Believing in realpolitik, Nixon and Kissenger adopted a more flexible approach in dealing with Communist countries known as détente, a policy aimed at reducing Cold War tensions.
65One application of détente was Nixon’s visit to communist countries.
66The United States had not formally recognized China since the Communist takeover in 1949.
67In 1971, Nixon announced that he would recognize and visit China “to seek the normalization of relations between the two countries.”
68China and the Soviet Union had broken ties in 1960, because China felt the Soviets were too “soft” on the Western Hemisphere. By visiting China, Nixon hoped the Chinese would join them in negotiations with the Russians.
69Nixon arrived at the Beijing Airport in February, 1972 and greeted the Chinese premier Zhou En-lai.
73China and the U.S. agreed that neither would try to dominate the Pacific and that both would cooperate in settling disputes peacefully.
74The two superpowers also agreed to participate in scientific and cultural exchanges and to eventually reunite Taiwan with the mainland.
75Richard Nixon received two giant pandas, Ling-Ling and Hsing-Hsing, from the Peoples Republic of China. The pandas were given as a token of friendship in response to President Nixon's goodwill trip to China and resided at the National Zoo in Washington, D.C.
76In May, 1972, Nixon became the first U. S In May, 1972, Nixon became the first U.S. president to visit the Soviet capital, Moscow.
77After a series of Strategic Arms Limitation (SALT) talks between Nixon and Russian leader, Brezhnev, the SALT I Treaty was signed.
78The SALT I Treaty was a five-year agreement that would limit the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and submarine-launched missiles.
79The accomplishments of the visits to China and Russia and Nixon’s announcement that peace “is at hand” in Vietnam helped reelect Nixon as president in 1972.