Presentation on theme: "Creating a Republic. Use the Georgraphy Skills map on pp.201 to answer these. 1) On the map find relative location western lands claimed by: (a) Virginia,"— Presentation transcript:
Use the Georgraphy Skills map on pp.201 to answer these. 1) On the map find relative location western lands claimed by: (a) Virginia, (b) New York, (c) Massachusetts, (d) Spain? 2) Which state’s had claimed NO western lands? 3) How might western land claims threaten national unity?
States wrote constitutions to: Spell out citizens’ rights Limit government’s power Some constitutions included a bill of rights. State governments were divided into executive and legislative branches.
Some delegates thought colonies needed a united, national government. Citizens feared that English tyranny would be replaced with American tyranny. Continental Congress approved the Articles in 1777.
Congress could: Declare war Appoint military officers Coin money Responsible for foreign affairs
Congress’ powers were limited: Nine states had to approve a law Could not regulate trade Had no power to tax No president to carry out the laws No courts to settle conflicts between states
Weaknesses Large debt with no power to tax Congress and states printed too much money
Weaknesses Britain maintained troops in Ohio Valley Spain closed the Port of New Orleans
In 1787, Congress passed the NW Ordinance which: Gave basic rights to settlers Outlawed slavery in NW Divided territory into smaller sections Established method for admittance into US
Nation faced a depression after the War. Farmers were hit hardest Many borrowed money Demand fell and prices fell Farmers could not repay loans
MA raised taxes Daniel Shays led more than 1,000 farmers’ in a revolt Farmers attacked courthouses to prevent the state from taking farms MA sent militia to end the rebellion
Forced leaders to question the nature and purpose of government Helped prove that the Articles of Confederation were too weak to be effective
Use the Viewing History portrait on page 209 to answer the following question. 1) How would you describe the way George Washington is portrayed? 2) Why do you think Howard Chandler Christy portrayed him that way?
A) AmendK) Habeas Corpus B) Anti-FederalistsL) Judicial Branch C) Articles of ConfederationM) Land Ordinance of 1785 D) Bill of RightsN) Legislative Branch E) CedeO) Northwest Ordinance F) ConstitutionP) Republic G) DictatorshipQ) Separation of Powers H) Executive BranchR) Shays' Rebellion I) FederalistsS) 3/5’s Compromise J) Great Compromise
Who were the leading delegates to the Constitutional Convention? What were the main differences between the two rival plans for the new Constitution? What compromises did the delegates have to reach before the Constitution could be signed?
Americans said Shays’ Rebellion proved the federal government was not effective under the Articles. Leaders from several states called for a convention to improve the Articles.
Revolutionary Leaders: Benjamin Franklin Representative from PA Oldest delegate-81 years of age Signed Declaration of Independence George Washington Appointed President of the Constitutional Convention Representative from VA New Generation: Alexander Hamilton Representative from NY Wanted strong central government James Madison Ideas on democratic government influenced others Considered “Father of the Constitution”
New Jersey Plan Virginia Plan The Great Compromise CREATE THIS GRAPHIC ORGANIZER ON A SHEET OF NOTEBOOK PAPER James MadisonEdmund RandolphWilliam Paterson
For the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan, investigate: a) Who proposed each plan? b) How many branches of government for each plan? c) How many legislative houses according to each plan? d) How many representatives per state for each plan? e) What size states would favor each plan?
1. Under this plan, representatives to Congress would all have been elected in proportion to the population. a) New Jersey Plan b) Marshall Plan c) Virginia Plan d) Anaconda Plan 2. Under this plan, every state had an equal vote, ensuring that smaller states could not be overpowered by more populous ones. a) New Jersey Plan b) Marshall Plan c) Virginia Plan d) Anaconda Plan 3. In the Great Compromise the delegates decided Congress would have a) Two houses, one where each state had two senators and one with seats awarded according to state populations. b) One house, in which each state had one vote. c) Two houses, both with seats awarded according to state populations. d) One house, in which seats are awarded according to state populations.
Read pages 208-209. Summarize the following: 1. The Great Compromise 2. Three-Fifths Compromise 3. Slave Trade Ban
Three branch government: Legislative Branch, Executive Branch, Judicial Branch “The Compromise”-a two house legislature House of Representatives-seats awarded according to population The Senate-two senators from each state
Southerners wanted slaves included in the population to gain House seats. Northerners said if slaves could not vote, they should not be counted. The compromise–3/5 of the slaves in any state would be counted.
The compromise- Congress would not outlaw the slave trade for at least 20 years. Slavery nor the slave trade could be talked about in Congress.
The Constitution was signed on September 17, 1787. Nine out of the 13 states had to ratify the Constitution.
1) Name one power and one weakness Congress had under the Articles of Confederation. 2) What was the Great Compromise? 3) What was the Three- Fifths Compromise?
Delegates’ desire was to have a republic “A Republic, if you can keep it.” - Benjamin Franklin, 1787
Americans admired Roman Republic Virtues Romans worked because of devotion, not for money alone Commitment was necessary for survival
Collapse of Rome was a warning to US Value of luxury and comfort over independence could be destructive Republics can die from within
Magna Carta-1215, kings have to obey laws and the Great Council developed into Parliament English Bill of Rights- regular elections, trial by jury, and right to bear arms
Mayflower Compact- 1620, set up self government in America Ideas from the American Revolution Declaration of Independence Articles of Confederation State constitutions
John Locke-taught that all people have natural rights, and government is an agreement between the ruler and the ruled (Social Contract?) Baron de Montesquieu- wrote that powers of government should be clearly defined and separated into branches
1) When was the U.S. Constitution signed? 2) What republic’s collapse served as a warning to the U.S.? 3) Name three American experiences that contributed to the Constitution.
Identify the following: Federalist Antifederalist The Federalist Papers
What were the Federalists’ main arguments? What were the Antifederalists’ main arguments?
Federalists-in favor of a strong federal government and supported the Constitution. Views on the Constitution: Federal government had enough power to function Protected states’ rights and powers Protected citizens’ rights
Antifederalists-against the Constitution Views on the Constitution: Made the federal government too strong and the states too weak Gave the President too much power Had no bill of rights
The Federalist Papers were written To explain and defend the Constitution. By James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay.
Turn to page 219. Read the primary source from Patrick Henry. In your notes, answer 3, 4, and 5 under Practice the Skill.
Turn to page 217. Look at the “Cause and Effect” chart. Answer the questions.
1 States set up conventions for ratification 2 Delaware becomes the first state to ratify the Constitution on Dec. 7, 1787 3 America becomes a stronger nation under the Constitution 4 George Washington is elected first president of the US in January 1789 5 12 amendments to the Constitution proposed in September 1789 6 Rhode Island ratifies the Constitution on May 29, 1790 7 The Bill of Rights are added to the Constitution in 1791