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Therapy How can you help people?.

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Presentation on theme: "Therapy How can you help people?."— Presentation transcript:

1 Therapy How can you help people?


3 What types of psychological therapies are there?
Psychoanalysis Humanistic therapy Behavior therapy Cognitive therapy

4 What is psychoanalysis?
Sigmund Freud Assumes problems are created by childhood memories, impulses and conflicts Psychoanalysis brings these childhood memories and conflicts into consciousness to be “worked through” and resolved.

5 Psychoanalysis (cont.)
Therapist uses “free association” (say what comes to mind) and dream analysis (interpretation of latent content of dreams) to get at repressed impulses. Problems with psychoanalysis Difficult to determine effectiveness scientifically Too lengthy - takes years with several sessions a week.

6 What is humanistic therapy?
Client Centered Therapy One type of humanistic therapy Carl Rogers Emphasizes your potential for self fulfillment Focus on the present, not the past Conscious not unconscious The patient can discover their own ways of dealing with their difficulties.

7 Client Centered Therapy (cont.)
Unconditional positive regard I accept what you say without judgment Active listening Paraphrasing -Restate the ideas in your own words. Invite clarification - Do you have an example? I want to understand. Reflect feelings - “That sounds frustrating?”

8 Client Centered Therapy (cont.)
Results As therapist reflects unconditional positive regard (acceptance), the clients begins to accept themselves and feel valued.

9 Do you remember? What does psychoanalysis focus on?
What strategies does psychoanalysis use? What does client centered therapy focus on? What strategies does client centered therapy use?

10 What is behavior therapy?
Views problems as learned behavior, not based on unresolved childhood conflicts Applies learning principles to eliminate unwanted behavior.

11 Example of behavior therapy
Classical conditioning Bedwetting alarm pad

12 What is systematic desensitization?
You can not be both relaxed and have high anxiety Paring relaxation with what creates fear Spider example

13 Systematic Desensitization
Spider example

14 What is aversive conditioning?
Associates negative behavior with negative feelings Mother spanks child for running into the street Alcohol & nausea (Antabuse)

15 Aversive conditioning

16 What is operant conditioning?
Token economy Reward for positive behavior When patient makes his bed, he gets a token (plastic coin) that can be exchanged for candy, T.V. viewing, etc.

17 What is cognitive therapy?

18 Cognitive therapy

19 Cognitive therapy

20 What is cognitive-Behavioral therapy?
Assumes: Thinking effects feelings Event - your mind - your response E.g. Self-blame and overgeneralization of negative events creates depression.

21 Do you remember? What is an example of :
Classical conditioning in therapy? Operant conditioning in therapy? Systematic desensitization in therapy? Aversive conditioning in therapy? Cognitive therapy

22 What is group and family therapy?
Group therapy people Often as effective as individual therapy Cheaper Allows a social content Feedback from others You are not alone

23 Group and Family Therapy (Cont.)
Support groups Not quite the same as group therapy No “therapist” - members support each other with a director Family therapy No person is an island The family is the patient - not just the person with the “symptoms”.

24 What are biomedical therapies?
Drugs E.g. Anti-psychotics and anti-depressants Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) Depression

25 Evaluating Therapies

26 How effective are therapies?
Regression toward the mean Will people get better anyway? The tendency for unusual events to return to normal

27 How effective are therapies?
Placebo effect You get what you expect If you think something will help, often it does. Double blind technique Used to determine the extent of the placebo effect. Separating the direct effect of the drug from the expectations of its effectiveness. E.g. Testing antianxiety medication.

28 Do you remember? What is an example of:
Family therapy? Biomedical therapy? Electroconvulsive therapy? How will “regression toward the mean” will make patients better without effective therapy? How will the “placebo effect” will make patients better without effective therapy?


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