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Lecture Overview Insight Therapies Behavior Therapies Biomedical Therapies Therapy & Critical Thinking ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture Overview Insight Therapies Behavior Therapies Biomedical Therapies Therapy & Critical Thinking ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture Overview Insight Therapies Behavior Therapies Biomedical Therapies Therapy & Critical Thinking ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

2 Introductory Definitions Psychotherapy: techniques employed to improve psychological functioning & promote adjustment to life Three major approaches to therapy: – Insight (personal understanding) – Behavior (maladaptive behaviors) – Biomedical (mental illness & medical treatments, such as drugs) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

3 Four Major Forms of Insight Therapy Psychoanalysis/psychodynamic Cognitive Humanistic ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

4 Insight Therapies: Psychoanalysis/Psychodynamic Psychoanalysis: Freudian therapy designed to bring unconscious conflicts into consciousness ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

5 Insight Therapies: Psychoanalyis/Psychodynamic Five major techniques of psychoanalysis: ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

6 Insight Therapies: Psychoanalysis/Psychodynamic Evaluation of psychoanalysis: limited applicability: expensive, difficult with psychotic individuals Psychodynamic Therapy: briefer, more directive, yet still dealing with unconscious ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

7 Insight Therapies: Cognitive Cognitive Therapy: focuses on faulty thinking & beliefs – Improvement comes from insight into negative self-talk (internal dialogue) – Cognitive Restructuring: process of changing destructive thoughts or inappropriate interpretations ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

8 Insight Therapies: Cognitive (Continued) Albert Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT): eliminates emotional problems through rational examination of irrational beliefs Aaron Beck’s form of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy works to change both thoughts & behaviors ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

9 Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

10 Cognitive Behavior Therapy First change way of thinking Then slowly change behavior Reward changed behavior Feedback from new behavior helps to change thoughts ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

11 Beck’s Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Depressive thought patterns: – selective perception – overgeneralization – magnification – all-or-nothing thinking ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

12 Insight Therapies: Cognitive (Continued) Evaluation of cognitive therapy Pro: Considerable success with a range of problems Con: Criticized for overemphasizing rationality, ignoring unconscious dynamics, minimizing importance of the past, etc. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

13 Humanistic therapy: Rogers emphasizes client’s natural tendency to become healthy & productive Techniques include: – empathy – unconditional positive regard – genuineness – active listening ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Client-Centered Therapy:

14 Insight Therapies: Humanistic (Continued) Evaluation of humanistic therapy Pro: Evidence for success Con: Basic tenets, such as self-actualization, difficult to test scientifically ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

15 Behavior Therapies Behavior Therapy: group of techniques based on learning principles used to change maladaptive behaviors Three foundations of behavior therapy: – classical conditioning – operant conditioning – observational learning ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

16 Behavior Therapies: Classical Conditioning Systematic Desensitization: gradual process of extinguishing a learned fear (or phobia) by working through a hierarchy of fearful stimuli while remaining relaxed ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

17 Behavior Therapies: Classical Conditioning – Aversion Therapy: pairing an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus with a maladaptive behavior ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

18 Behavior Therapies: Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning techniques used to INCREASE adaptive behaviors: Shaping: successive approximations of target behavior are rewarded; includes role-playing, behavior rehearsal, assertiveness training Tokens: symbolic rewards used to immediately reinforce desired behavior ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

19 Behavior Therapies: Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning techniques used to DECREASE maladaptive behaviors: Extinction: withdrawal of attention Punishment: adding or taking away something (e.g., time-out) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

20 Behavior Therapies: Observational Learning Modeling: watching & imitating models that demonstrate desirable behaviors Participant Modeling: combining live modeling with direct & gradual practice ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

21 Behavior Therapies (Continued) Evaluation of behavior therapies: Pro: Strong evidence for success with a wide range of problems Con: Questioned & criticized for generalizability. What about thoughts and feelings? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

22 Biomedical Therapies Biomedical Therapy: uses physiological interventions, such as drugs, to treat psychological disorders – Psychopharmacology ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

23 1.Antianxiety (increases relaxation, reduces anxiety & muscle tension) 2.Antipsychotic (treats hallucinations & other symptoms of psychosis) 3.Mood Stabilizer (treats manic episodes & depression) 4.Antidepressant (treats symptoms of depression) 5. Stimulants (used to treat attention deficits) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Major categories of drugs:

24 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

25 Therapy & Critical Thinking Therapy Essentials--Five Common Goals ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

26 Therapy & Critical Thinking ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

27 Therapy & Critical Thinking: Gender & Cultural Diversity Cultural differences: – Therapies in individualistic cultures emphasize independence, the self, & control over one’s life. – Therapies in collectivist cultures emphasize interdependence. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

28 Therapy & Critical Thinking: Evaluating & Finding Therapy Forty to 80 % who receive therapy are better off than people who do not. Guidelines for Finding a Therapist: take time to “shop around.” if in a crisis, call 24-hour hotlines or college counseling centers. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

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