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Lecture Overview Insight Therapies Behavior Therapies Biomedical Therapies Therapy & Critical Thinking ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Introductory Definitions Psychotherapy: techniques employed to improve psychological functioning & promote adjustment to life Three major approaches to therapy: – Insight (personal understanding) – Behavior (maladaptive behaviors) – Biomedical (mental illness & medical treatments, such as drugs) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Four Major Forms of Insight Therapy Psychoanalysis/psychodynamic Cognitive Humanistic ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Insight Therapies: Psychoanalysis/Psychodynamic Psychoanalysis: Freudian therapy designed to bring unconscious conflicts into consciousness ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Insight Therapies: Psychoanalyis/Psychodynamic Five major techniques of psychoanalysis: ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Insight Therapies: Psychoanalysis/Psychodynamic Evaluation of psychoanalysis: limited applicability: expensive, difficult with psychotic individuals Psychodynamic Therapy: briefer, more directive, yet still dealing with unconscious ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Insight Therapies: Cognitive Cognitive Therapy: focuses on faulty thinking & beliefs – Improvement comes from insight into negative self-talk (internal dialogue) – Cognitive Restructuring: process of changing destructive thoughts or inappropriate interpretations ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Insight Therapies: Cognitive (Continued) Albert Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT): eliminates emotional problems through rational examination of irrational beliefs Aaron Beck’s form of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy works to change both thoughts & behaviors ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Cognitive Behavior Therapy First change way of thinking Then slowly change behavior Reward changed behavior Feedback from new behavior helps to change thoughts ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Beck’s Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Depressive thought patterns: – selective perception – overgeneralization – magnification – all-or-nothing thinking ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Insight Therapies: Cognitive (Continued) Evaluation of cognitive therapy Pro: Considerable success with a range of problems Con: Criticized for overemphasizing rationality, ignoring unconscious dynamics, minimizing importance of the past, etc. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Humanistic therapy: Rogers emphasizes client’s natural tendency to become healthy & productive Techniques include: – empathy – unconditional positive regard – genuineness – active listening ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Client-Centered Therapy:
Insight Therapies: Humanistic (Continued) Evaluation of humanistic therapy Pro: Evidence for success Con: Basic tenets, such as self-actualization, difficult to test scientifically ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Behavior Therapies Behavior Therapy: group of techniques based on learning principles used to change maladaptive behaviors Three foundations of behavior therapy: – classical conditioning – operant conditioning – observational learning ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Behavior Therapies: Classical Conditioning Systematic Desensitization: gradual process of extinguishing a learned fear (or phobia) by working through a hierarchy of fearful stimuli while remaining relaxed ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Behavior Therapies: Classical Conditioning – Aversion Therapy: pairing an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus with a maladaptive behavior ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Behavior Therapies: Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning techniques used to INCREASE adaptive behaviors: Shaping: successive approximations of target behavior are rewarded; includes role-playing, behavior rehearsal, assertiveness training Tokens: symbolic rewards used to immediately reinforce desired behavior ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Behavior Therapies: Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning techniques used to DECREASE maladaptive behaviors: Extinction: withdrawal of attention Punishment: adding or taking away something (e.g., time-out) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Behavior Therapies: Observational Learning Modeling: watching & imitating models that demonstrate desirable behaviors Participant Modeling: combining live modeling with direct & gradual practice ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Behavior Therapies (Continued) Evaluation of behavior therapies: Pro: Strong evidence for success with a wide range of problems Con: Questioned & criticized for generalizability. What about thoughts and feelings? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Biomedical Therapies Biomedical Therapy: uses physiological interventions, such as drugs, to treat psychological disorders – Psychopharmacology ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
1.Antianxiety (increases relaxation, reduces anxiety & muscle tension) 2.Antipsychotic (treats hallucinations & other symptoms of psychosis) 3.Mood Stabilizer (treats manic episodes & depression) 4.Antidepressant (treats symptoms of depression) 5. Stimulants (used to treat attention deficits) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Major categories of drugs:
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Therapy & Critical Thinking Therapy Essentials--Five Common Goals ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Therapy & Critical Thinking ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Therapy & Critical Thinking: Gender & Cultural Diversity Cultural differences: – Therapies in individualistic cultures emphasize independence, the self, & control over one’s life. – Therapies in collectivist cultures emphasize interdependence. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Therapy & Critical Thinking: Evaluating & Finding Therapy Forty to 80 % who receive therapy are better off than people who do not. Guidelines for Finding a Therapist: take time to “shop around.” if in a crisis, call 24-hour hotlines or college counseling centers. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Psychological Therapies Chapter 15. Chapter 15 Learning Objective Menu LO 15.1 Two ways to treat psychological disorders LO 15.2 How psychological disorders.
Treatment of Psychological Disorders. Who Seeks Treatment? 15% of U.S. population in a given year Most common presenting problems Anxiety and Depression.
Psychology in Action (9e)
Chapter 13: Treatment of Psychological Disorders Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Psychological Therapies Psychotherapy An interaction between a trained therapist and someone suffering from psychological difficulties or adjustment.
Treatment of Psychological Disorders Overview u How can treatments be evaluated? u How do drug treatments work? u What are the different types of psychological.
Unit 13: Treatment of Abnormal Behavior. Unit 13 - Overview Introduction to Therapy, and Psychodynamic and Humanistic TherapiesIntroduction to Therapy,
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter.
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Note to the Instructor: The following PowerPoint slides include the core concepts and.
Psychological Therapies. Psychotherapy An interaction between a trained therapist and someone suffering from psychological difficulties.
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VISUALIZIN G Prepared By: Dawn More, Algonquin College.
Therapy How can you help people?.
Therapies. Types of Therapy Psychotherapy—use of psychological techniques to treat emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems Biomedical—use of.
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 16: Treatment of Psychological Disorders.
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