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Psychology in Action (9e)

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology in Action (9e)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology in Action (9e)
Chapter 15: Therapy

2 Introductory Definitions
Psychotherapy: techniques employed to improve psychological functioning & promote adjustment to life Three major approaches to therapy: Insight (personal understanding) Behavior (maladaptive behaviors) Biomedical (mental illness & medical treatments, such as drugs)


4 Four Major Forms of Insight Therapy
Psychoanalysis/psychodynamic Humanistic Cognitive Group, Family, & Marital

5 Insight Therapies: Psychoanalysis/Psychodynamic
Psychoanalysis: Freudian therapy designed to bring unconscious conflicts into consciousness

6 Insight Therapies: Psychoanalyis/Psychodynamic
Five major techniques of psychoanalysis:

7 Insight Therapies: Psychoanalysis/Psychodynamic
Evaluation of psychoanalysis: limited applicability & lack of scientific credibility Psychodynamic Therapy: briefer, more directive, & more modern form of psychoanalysis focusing on conscious processes & current problems

8 Insight Therapies: Cognitive
Cognitive Therapy: focuses on faulty thinking & beliefs Improvement comes from insight into negative self-talk (internal dialogue) Cognitive Restructuring: process of changing destructive thoughts or inappropriate interpretations

9 Insight Therapies: Cognitive (Continued)
Albert Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT): eliminates emotional problems through rational examination of irrational beliefs Aaron Beck’s form of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy works to change both thoughts & behaviors

10 Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)

11 Beck’s Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
Depressive thought patterns: selective perception overgeneralization magnification all-or-nothing thinking

12 Insight Therapies: Cognitive (Continued)
Evaluation of cognitive therapy Pro: Considerable success with a range of problems Con: Criticized for overemphasizing rationality, ignoring unconscious dynamics, minimizing importance of the past, etc.

13 Insight Therapies: Humanistic
Humanistic therapy: maximizes personal growth through affective restructuring (emotional readjustment) Key assumption: Problems = blockage or disruption of normal growth potential, which leads to a defective self-concept.

14 Insight Therapies: Humanistic (Cont.)
Rogers’s Client-Centered Therapy: emphasizes client’s natural tendency to become healthy & productive Techniques include: empathy unconditional positive regard genuineness active listening

15 Insight Therapies: Humanistic (Continued)
Evaluation of humanistic therapy Pro: Evidence for success Con: Basic tenets, such as self-actualization, difficult to test scientifically

16 Insight Therapies: Group, Family, & Marital Therapies
Group Therapy: a number of people meet together to work toward therapeutic goals Family & Marital Therapies: work to change maladaptive family & couple interaction patterns

17 Behavior Therapies Behavior Therapy: group of techniques based on learning principles used to change maladaptive behaviors Three foundations of behavior therapy: classical conditioning operant conditioning observational learning

18 Behavior Therapies: Classical Conditioning
Systematic Desensitization: gradual process of extinguishing a learned fear (or phobia) by working through a hierarchy of fearful stimuli while remaining relaxed

19 Behavior Therapies: Classical Conditioning & Driving Phobia

20 Behavior Therapies: Classical Conditioning
Aversion Therapy: pairing an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus with a maladaptive behavior

21 Behavior Therapies: Operant Conditioning
Operant conditioning techniques used to INCREASE adaptive behaviors: Shaping: successive approximations of target behavior are rewarded; includes role-playing, behavior rehearsal, assertiveness training Tokens: symbolic rewards used to immediately reinforce desired behavior

22 Behavior Therapies: Operant Conditioning
Operant conditioning techniques used to DECREASE maladaptive behaviors: Extinction: withdrawal of attention Punishment: adding or taking away something (e.g., time-out)

23 Behavior Therapies: Observational Learning
Modeling: watching & imitating models that demonstrate desirable behaviors Participant Modeling: combining live modeling with direct & gradual practice ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

24 Behavior Therapies (Continued)
Evaluation of behavior therapies: Pro: Strong evidence for success with a wide range of problems Con: Questioned & criticized for generalizability & ethics

25 Biomedical Therapies Biomedical Therapy: uses physiological interventions, such as drugs, to treat psychological disorders Three forms of biomedical therapy: Psychopharmacology Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) Psychosurgery

26 Biomedical Therapies: Psychopharmacology
Four major categories of drugs: Antianxiety (increases relaxation, reduces anxiety & muscle tension) Antipsychotic (treats hallucinations & other symptoms of psychosis) Mood Stabilizer (treats manic episodes & depression) Antidepressant (treats symptoms of depression)


28 Psychopharmacology— How Antidepressants Work

29 Biomedical Therapies (Continued)
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT): based on passing electrical current through the brain; used almost exclusively when other methods have failed Psychosurgery: operative procedures on the brain designed to relieve severe mental symptoms that have not responded to other forms of treatment

30 Therapy & Critical Thinking Therapy Essentials--Five Common Goals

31 Therapy & Critical Thinking: Institutionalization
Institutionalization—criteria for involuntary commitment: dangerous to self or others believed to be in serious need of treatment no reasonable alternatives

32 Therapy & Critical Thinking: Institutionalization (Continued)
Deinstitutionalization: discharging as many people as possible from state hospitals & discouraging admissions Community services such as community mental health (CMH) centers work to cope with problems of deinstitutionalization.

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