2 Introductory Definitions Psychotherapy: techniques employed to improve psychological functioning & promote adjustment to lifeThree major approaches to therapy:Insight (personal understanding)Behavior (maladaptive behaviors)Biomedical (mental illness & medical treatments, such as drugs)
4 Four Major Forms of Insight Therapy Psychoanalysis/psychodynamicHumanisticCognitiveGroup, Family, & Marital
5 Insight Therapies: Psychoanalysis/Psychodynamic Psychoanalysis: Freudian therapy designed to bring unconscious conflicts into consciousness
6 Insight Therapies: Psychoanalyis/Psychodynamic Five major techniques of psychoanalysis:
7 Insight Therapies: Psychoanalysis/Psychodynamic Evaluation of psychoanalysis: limited applicability & lack of scientific credibilityPsychodynamic Therapy: briefer, more directive, & more modern form of psychoanalysis focusing on conscious processes & current problems
8 Insight Therapies: Cognitive Cognitive Therapy: focuses on faulty thinking & beliefsImprovement comes from insight into negative self-talk (internal dialogue)Cognitive Restructuring: process of changing destructive thoughts or inappropriate interpretations
9 Insight Therapies: Cognitive (Continued) Albert Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT): eliminates emotional problems through rational examination of irrational beliefsAaron Beck’s form of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy works to change both thoughts & behaviors
11 Beck’s Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Depressive thought patterns:selective perceptionovergeneralizationmagnificationall-or-nothing thinking
12 Insight Therapies: Cognitive (Continued) Evaluation of cognitive therapyPro: Considerable success with a range of problemsCon: Criticized for overemphasizing rationality, ignoring unconscious dynamics, minimizing importance of the past, etc.
13 Insight Therapies: Humanistic Humanistic therapy: maximizespersonal growth through affective restructuring (emotional readjustment)Key assumption: Problems = blockage or disruption of normal growth potential, which leads to a defective self-concept.
15 Insight Therapies: Humanistic (Continued) Evaluation of humanistic therapyPro: Evidence for successCon: Basic tenets, such as self-actualization, difficult to test scientifically
16 Insight Therapies: Group, Family, & Marital Therapies Group Therapy: a number of people meet together to work toward therapeutic goalsFamily & Marital Therapies: work to change maladaptive family & couple interaction patterns
17 Behavior TherapiesBehavior Therapy: group of techniques based on learning principles used to change maladaptive behaviorsThree foundations of behavior therapy:classical conditioningoperant conditioningobservational learning
18 Behavior Therapies: Classical Conditioning Systematic Desensitization: gradual process of extinguishing a learned fear (or phobia) by working through a hierarchy of fearful stimuli while remaining relaxed
20 Behavior Therapies: Classical Conditioning Aversion Therapy: pairing an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus with a maladaptive behavior
21 Behavior Therapies: Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning techniques used to INCREASE adaptive behaviors:Shaping: successive approximations of target behavior are rewarded; includes role-playing, behavior rehearsal, assertiveness trainingTokens: symbolic rewards used to immediately reinforce desired behavior
22 Behavior Therapies: Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning techniques used to DECREASE maladaptive behaviors:Extinction: withdrawal of attentionPunishment: adding or taking away something (e.g., time-out)
24 Behavior Therapies (Continued) Evaluation of behavior therapies:Pro: Strong evidence for success with a wide range of problemsCon: Questioned & criticized for generalizability & ethics
25 Biomedical TherapiesBiomedical Therapy: uses physiological interventions, such as drugs, to treat psychological disordersThree forms of biomedical therapy:PsychopharmacologyElectroconvulsive therapy (ECT)Psychosurgery
26 Biomedical Therapies: Psychopharmacology Four major categories of drugs:Antianxiety (increases relaxation, reduces anxiety & muscle tension)Antipsychotic (treats hallucinations & other symptoms of psychosis)Mood Stabilizer (treats manic episodes & depression)Antidepressant (treats symptoms of depression)
29 Biomedical Therapies (Continued) Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT): based on passing electrical current through the brain; used almost exclusively when other methods have failedPsychosurgery: operative procedures on the brain designed to relieve severe mental symptoms that have not responded to other forms of treatment
30 Therapy & Critical Thinking Therapy Essentials--Five Common Goals
31 Therapy & Critical Thinking: Institutionalization Institutionalization—criteria for involuntary commitment:dangerous to self or othersbelieved to be in serious need of treatmentno reasonable alternatives
32 Therapy & Critical Thinking: Institutionalization (Continued) Deinstitutionalization: discharging as many people as possible from state hospitals & discouraging admissionsCommunity services such as community mental health (CMH) centers work to cope with problems of deinstitutionalization.