Presentation on theme: "Agenda Jury duty discussion Introduction to the Cold War Reminder – CBAs due on Wednesday, beginning of class Writing prompt (use scratch paper)"— Presentation transcript:
Agenda Jury duty discussion Introduction to the Cold War Reminder – CBAs due on Wednesday, beginning of class Writing prompt (use scratch paper) I was on the jury of a DUI case. Any questions about the case, or jury duty in general? Have paper/pen out for notes
Key issue: Why did the wartime alliance fall apart? What were the major points of difference? The importance of Yalta and Potsdam conferences The roles of Stalin and Truman By Mr Crowe www.SchoolHitory.co.uk
Major point: The USSR lost around 20 million people in WW2 Stalin was determined to make the USSR secure in the future By contrast GB lost around 370,000 and the USA lost 297,000 people.
Before WW2 there were a number of countries which could have claimed to be superpowers – USA, USSR,GB, France, Japan, Germany. The damage caused by the war to these countries left only two countries with the military strength and resources to be called superpowers….USA and USSR.
USA was capitalist and USSR was communism They were complete opposites They had allied against Fascism ….. Now the common enemy had been defeated the reason for co-operation was gone Differences soon emerged
After the war who would lead the countries and form new governments The USSR favoured the communist groups, the USA favoured the non-communists
Two conferences were held in 1945 at Yalta and Potsdam The aim was to discuss the future especially **What to do with Germany’s leaders after the war **What would happen to the occupied countries after liberation, especially those of Eastern Europe **How to end the war with Japan **How to build a lasting peace.
50 countries joined Based in New York Security Council – 11 members, 5 permanent (Britain, China, France, US, USSR)
Truman had been horrified at the pre-war Allied policy of appeasement and was determined to stand upto any Soviet intimidation. The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”. Triggered by British inability to hold the line in Greece, it was followed by aid to Greece and Turkey, and also money to secure upcoming elections in Italy and the advance of Communist trade unions in France. It signalled the end of “isolationst” policies.
The Marshall Plan reflected the strength of the US economy and offered huge sums to enable the war shattered economies of Europe to rebuild and, by generating prosperity, to reject the appeal of Communism, Czechoslovakia showed interest in receiving Marshall Aid but was blocked by Russia. The Soviet system was as much dependent upon creating a self-contained economic bloc as it was in maintaining a repressive political system.
Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West.
The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May 1945. They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.
Border between Eastern Europe (communist) and Western Europe (not communist) Name comes from a speech by Winston Churchill