Presentation on theme: "Motivational theorists recap Lesson 2.9 – Year 12 Business."— Presentation transcript:
Motivational theorists recap Lesson 2.9 – Year 12 Business
Definition - ‘The act or an instance of motivating or providing with a reason to act in a certain way.’ Purpose? - Motivation > higher productivity > increased sales and profit? KEEP THESE IDEAS IN MIND!!! Motivation
Analyse and discuss motivation in theory and practice (such as Taylor, Mayo, Maslow, Herzberg,) To know what the main theory is and how it can lead to more motivated staff. Be able to give examples of how it can be used. Be able to pick out the key strengths and weaknesses of each theory What do we need to be able to do?
Abraham Maslow, US psychologist (1908 – 70) Believed all people have similar human needs which can be placed in a hierarchy. He believed that if people did not achieve the lower levels then the higher levels became unimportant. A Business should look at where the employee is on the hierarchy and then reward them appropriately until that level is satisfied. 1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological Needs. E.g. Food, Water and rest Safety Needs. E.g. Providing security for your future i.e., pension or providing a safe environment to work in. Social Needs E.g. Making friends. Affection, trust Self Esteem Needs, Self – Actualisation E.g. The need to receive praise for good work. I.e. Getting employee Of the month award A need to feel like you are Reaching your full Potential. Doing the Best you can do in life This could be satisfied by having a Work party This is satisfied through Gaining the minimum wage
What do you think? Treats all workers as individuals Simple structure for companies to follow. Levels on the hierarchy and very broad and could be used by many different businesses. Focuses not just on the job that is being performed, but the individuals human needs. What are the strengths of Maslow?
Whilst Maslow’s H.O.Ns seems like a clear and simple model to follow there may be some issues. Some levels do not appear to exist for some - A well motivated sales rep may not be part of a group or team. Some rewards fit into more than one level – Money can be used to buy essentials, but also could be to show that the employee has reached their full potential. How does a business know when the level has been ‘satisfied’? Can it help a business motivate its staff?
Please read the hand-out on Taylor’s Scientific Management (which you had previously) Read through and answer the questions. 2. Taylor’s Scientific Management
Will the quickest and best way suit all workers? Will it stop workers being creative and harm innovation and motivation? Remember that much research has shown that money is a weak motivator in the long run and more of the ideas from Maslow’s hierarchy have become more important. Terrible Taylor?
Elton Mayo (1880 – 1949) believed that workers are not just concerned with money but could be better motivated by having their social needs met whilst at work (something that Taylor ignored and Maslow incorporated) Mayo discovered this by conducting a series of experiments known as the Hawthorne Studies. These studies found that changes in physical working conditions made no difference to workers productivity. 3. Elton Mayo
Mayo concluded that workers are best motivated by: Better communication between managers and workers ( Hawthorne workers were consulted over the experiments and also had the opportunity to give feedback) Greater manager involvement in employees working lives ( Hawthorne workers responded to the increased level of attention they were receiving) Working in groups or teams. ( Hawthorne workers did not previously regularly work in teams) What is the theory?
In practice therefore businesses should re-organise production to encourage greater use of team working. They should also ensure that staff have the opportunity to voice concerns or be part of the decision making process through staff panels etc. His theory most closely fits in with a paternalistic or democratic leadership style. How should it be used in practice?
It assumes that managers and employees will have the same goals for the company. It also assumes that communication will be straightforward between management and staff? Will both parties be able to break down barriers? Biased towards management, as it involves manipulating staff into work and reduces the power of trade unions. Messy Mayo?
Read the handout and answer the questions. 4. Herzberg’s two factor theory