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Motivational theorists recap Lesson 2.9 – Year 12 Business.

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Presentation on theme: "Motivational theorists recap Lesson 2.9 – Year 12 Business."— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivational theorists recap Lesson 2.9 – Year 12 Business

2  Definition - ‘The act or an instance of motivating or providing with a reason to act in a certain way.’  Purpose? - Motivation > higher productivity > increased sales and profit?  KEEP THESE IDEAS IN MIND!!! Motivation

3  Analyse and discuss motivation in theory and practice (such as Taylor, Mayo, Maslow, Herzberg,)  To know what the main theory is and how it can lead to more motivated staff.  Be able to give examples of how it can be used.  Be able to pick out the key strengths and weaknesses of each theory What do we need to be able to do?

4  Abraham Maslow, US psychologist (1908 – 70)  Believed all people have similar human needs which can be placed in a hierarchy.  He believed that if people did not achieve the lower levels then the higher levels became unimportant.  A Business should look at where the employee is on the hierarchy and then reward them appropriately until that level is satisfied. 1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

5 Physiological Needs. E.g. Food, Water and rest Safety Needs. E.g. Providing security for your future i.e., pension or providing a safe environment to work in. Social Needs E.g. Making friends. Affection, trust Self Esteem Needs, Self – Actualisation E.g. The need to receive praise for good work. I.e. Getting employee Of the month award A need to feel like you are Reaching your full Potential. Doing the Best you can do in life This could be satisfied by having a Work party This is satisfied through Gaining the minimum wage

6  What do you think?  Treats all workers as individuals  Simple structure for companies to follow.  Levels on the hierarchy and very broad and could be used by many different businesses.  Focuses not just on the job that is being performed, but the individuals human needs. What are the strengths of Maslow?

7  Whilst Maslow’s H.O.Ns seems like a clear and simple model to follow there may be some issues.  Some levels do not appear to exist for some - A well motivated sales rep may not be part of a group or team.  Some rewards fit into more than one level – Money can be used to buy essentials, but also could be to show that the employee has reached their full potential.  How does a business know when the level has been ‘satisfied’? Can it help a business motivate its staff?

8  Please read the hand-out on Taylor’s Scientific Management (which you had previously)  Read through and answer the questions. 2. Taylor’s Scientific Management

9  Will the quickest and best way suit all workers?  Will it stop workers being creative and harm innovation and motivation?  Remember that much research has shown that money is a weak motivator in the long run and more of the ideas from Maslow’s hierarchy have become more important. Terrible Taylor?

10  Elton Mayo (1880 – 1949) believed that workers are not just concerned with money but could be better motivated by having their social needs met whilst at work (something that Taylor ignored and Maslow incorporated)  Mayo discovered this by conducting a series of experiments known as the Hawthorne Studies.  These studies found that changes in physical working conditions made no difference to workers productivity. 3. Elton Mayo

11  Mayo concluded that workers are best motivated by:  Better communication between managers and workers ( Hawthorne workers were consulted over the experiments and also had the opportunity to give feedback)  Greater manager involvement in employees working lives ( Hawthorne workers responded to the increased level of attention they were receiving)  Working in groups or teams. ( Hawthorne workers did not previously regularly work in teams) What is the theory?

12  In practice therefore businesses should re-organise production to encourage greater use of team working.  They should also ensure that staff have the opportunity to voice concerns or be part of the decision making process through staff panels etc.  His theory most closely fits in with a paternalistic or democratic leadership style. How should it be used in practice?

13  It assumes that managers and employees will have the same goals for the company.  It also assumes that communication will be straightforward between management and staff? Will both parties be able to break down barriers?  Biased towards management, as it involves manipulating staff into work and reduces the power of trade unions. Messy Mayo?

14  Read the handout and answer the questions. 4. Herzberg’s two factor theory

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