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Investigating People Lesson 9 - Motivation Theories 1 Investigating people at work - Lesson 9 Motivation Theories.

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Presentation on theme: "Investigating People Lesson 9 - Motivation Theories 1 Investigating people at work - Lesson 9 Motivation Theories."— Presentation transcript:

1 Investigating People Lesson 9 - Motivation Theories 1 Investigating people at work - Lesson 9 Motivation Theories

2 Investigating People Lesson 9 - Motivation Theories 2 Lesson Objectives In this lesson we will In this lesson we will Consider motivation other than from a financial viewpoint Consider motivation other than from a financial viewpoint Look at the motivation theories propounded by Look at the motivation theories propounded by Maslow Maslow Herzberg Herzberg McGregor McGregor

3 Investigating People Lesson 9 - Motivation Theories 3 What is Motivation? In the last lesson we looked at financial and non-financial rewards that going to work provides In the last lesson we looked at financial and non-financial rewards that going to work provides These are only part of the reason why people work These are only part of the reason why people work They go to work, and perhaps build a career, because they want to satisfy specific They go to work, and perhaps build a career, because they want to satisfy specific NEEDS

4 Investigating People Lesson 9 - Motivation Theories 4 What is Motivation? Motivation is the strength of commitment that individuals have to what they are doing Motivation is the strength of commitment that individuals have to what they are doing A number of theories have evolved to help understand what motivates people in the work situation. We will look at 3 of these:- A number of theories have evolved to help understand what motivates people in the work situation. We will look at 3 of these:- Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Herzbergs Theory of Motivators & Dissatisfiers Herzbergs Theory of Motivators & Dissatisfiers McGregors Theory X versus Theory Y McGregors Theory X versus Theory Y

5 Investigating People Lesson 9 - Motivation Theories 5 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Maslow classified human needs and then considered how the classes related to each other Maslow classified human needs and then considered how the classes related to each other Basic needs Security needs Group needs Self-esteem needs Self fulfilment needs

6 Investigating People Lesson 9 - Motivation Theories 6 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Basic needs Basic needs Required for survival – food, shelter, clothing e.g. receipt of minimum wage Required for survival – food, shelter, clothing e.g. receipt of minimum wage Security needs Security needs Safety, rest periods, sickness schemes Safety, rest periods, sickness schemes Group needs Group needs Sense of belonging – can be problem in large organisations – managers need to form teams to recognise group needs Sense of belonging – can be problem in large organisations – managers need to form teams to recognise group needs Self- esteem needs Self- esteem needs Recognition as individuals Recognition as individuals Praised for work Praised for work Efforts and rewards Efforts and rewards Self-fulfillment Self-fulfillment Full personal development Full personal development Individual creativity Individual creativity Full use of talents and abilities Full use of talents and abilities MASLOW ARGUED THAT WHILST LOWER LEVEL NEEDS MUST BE MET, HIGHER LEVEL EQUALLY ESSENTIAL TO REALISE FULL POTENTIAL AND AVOID CAREER FRUSTRATION

7 Investigating People Lesson 9 - Motivation Theories 7 Herzbergs Theory of Motivators and Dissatisfiers (1) Hertzberg identified 9 factors he called dissatisfiers which could cause absenteeism, low production, dislike of change and other negative actions at work Hertzberg identified 9 factors he called dissatisfiers which could cause absenteeism, low production, dislike of change and other negative actions at work

8 Investigating People Lesson 9 - Motivation Theories 8 Herzbergs Theory of Motivators and Dissatisfiers (2) The dissatisfiers were:- The dissatisfiers were:- Fluctuating company policy & admin Fluctuating company policy & admin Low pay Low pay Poor working conditions Poor working conditions Confrontational relationships Confrontational relationships Unfriendly relationships Unfriendly relationships Unfair management Unfair management Unfair treatment of employees Unfair treatment of employees Feeling inadequate Feeling inadequate No individual development No individual development

9 Investigating People Lesson 9 - Motivation Theories 9 Herzbergs Theory of Motivators and Dissatisfiers (3) The satisfiers were:- The satisfiers were:- Recognition of effort and performance Recognition of effort and performance Job that provides enough challenges Job that provides enough challenges Sense of achievement Sense of achievement Assumption of responsibility Assumption of responsibility Chance of promotion Chance of promotion

10 Investigating People Lesson 9 - Motivation Theories 10 McGregors Theory X versus Theory Y McGregor divided managers into 2 types McGregor divided managers into 2 types Theory X Theory X Theory Y

11 Investigating People Lesson 9 - Motivation Theories 11 Theory X Managers They take the view that They take the view that People dont really like work and avoid it if possible, so they need incentives for company to achieve aims People dont really like work and avoid it if possible, so they need incentives for company to achieve aims People need to be pushed, threatened and driven to get things done People need to be pushed, threatened and driven to get things done People like to be told what to do, avoid responsibility and lack ambition; they thus need to be managed People like to be told what to do, avoid responsibility and lack ambition; they thus need to be managed

12 Investigating People Lesson 9 - Motivation Theories 12 Theory Y Managers They on the other hand think They on the other hand think Work is a natural activity which people enjoy, so management must create right conditions Work is a natural activity which people enjoy, so management must create right conditions Employees who identify with organisations will be motivated to work hard Employees who identify with organisations will be motivated to work hard One way to do this is self-fulfillment (Maslow) – management should provide ways to do this One way to do this is self-fulfillment (Maslow) – management should provide ways to do this Given the opportunity, people learn to accept and seek responsibility Given the opportunity, people learn to accept and seek responsibility People will contribute to organisations objectives if they are able to People will contribute to organisations objectives if they are able to Peoples full potential is rarely reached in the workplace environment Peoples full potential is rarely reached in the workplace environment

13 Investigating People Lesson 9 - Motivation Theories 13 Activity Read through the detailed slides about the 3 motivation theories Read through the detailed slides about the 3 motivation theories Think about your own life experiences both at school, work and other organisations, for example sports and other clubs you might have been involved with Think about your own life experiences both at school, work and other organisations, for example sports and other clubs you might have been involved with Write about instances where you felt motivated or the opposite Write about instances where you felt motivated or the opposite

14 Investigating People Lesson 9 - Motivation Theories 14 Lesson Objectives Revisited In this lesson we In this lesson we Considered motivation other than from a financial viewpoint Considered motivation other than from a financial viewpoint Looked at the motivation theories propounded by Looked at the motivation theories propounded by Maslow Maslow Herzberg Herzberg McGregor McGregor


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