Presentation on theme: "Cancer 101: A Cancer Education and Training Program for American Indians & Alaska Natives Cancer 101: A Cancer Education and Training Program for American."— Presentation transcript:
Cancer 101: A Cancer Education and Training Program for American Indians & Alaska Natives Cancer 101: A Cancer Education and Training Program for American Indians & Alaska Natives Version 2 – Updated October 2011 Date Location Presented by: Presenter 1 Presenter 2
Cancer Screening and Early Detection Cancer 101 – Version 2 Learning Module 5
Learning Objectives At the completion of Module 5, you will be able to: Describe the importance of early detection. Describe two screening methods used in the detection of cancer. Describe two barriers associated with practicing early detection. Describe three symptoms of cancer.
Why is early detection important? The goal of early detection is to discover and stop a cancerous tumor before it grows and spreads (metastasizes). A person’s chance for full recovery is better if cancer is detected and treated earlier.
What is cancer screening? Checking for cancer in a person who does not have any symptoms is called screening.
Cancer Screening (cont’d) Medical screening tests are effective tools for the early detection of cancer. A few types of cancer have specific tests that aid in detecting cancer.
Cancer Screening & Prevention Screening tests for common types of cancer: Breast – mammogram Cervix – Pap test Colon & rectum – fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, digital rectal exam Prostate – digital rectal exam, PSA test
Screening for Breast Cancer Mammogram Screening Diagnostic Digital Clinical breast exam (CBE) Breast self exam (BSE) See your provider and get a mammogram every 1-2 years after age 40. Image Source: National Cancer Institute
Screening for Cervical Cancer Papanicolaou (Pap Test) Pelvic Exam Cervical cancer screening should begin 3 years after a woman begins having sexual intercourse, but no later than age 21. Women should have a Pap test at least once every 3 years Image Source: National Cancer Institute
How should women prepare for a Pap test? Doctors suggest the following tips… For 48 hours before the test: Do not douche Do not have sexual intercourse Do not use vaginal medicines (except as directed by doctor), birth control foams, jellies, or creams Schedule your test 10-20 days after the first day of your menstrual period.
Screening for Colon & Rectal Cancer Fecal occult blood test (FOBT) Guaiac FOBT Fecal immunochemical test (FIT) Sigmoidoscopy Colonoscopy Barium enema Digital rectal exam Images Source: National Cancer Institute
Virtual Colonoscopy Computed tomographic (CT) colonography Less invasive, less discomfort Detects large polyps Evolving test, still being studied Virtual colonoscopy image of the inside of a colon. The red colored area indicates a polyp. Image courtesy of Dr. R.M. Summers, National Institutes of Health.
Case Study Martha is 55 years old. She just went in for a check-up, and her doctor recommended that she schedule appointments for: A Pap test. Her last one was three years ago. It was normal. A mammogram. She had one two years ago. It was normal. A colonoscopy. She has not had any type of colorectal screening since she turned 50.
Screening for Prostate Cancer Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) Prostate- Specific Antigen (PSA) blood test Image Source: National Cancer Institute
Cancer Screening & Early Detection Awareness of body changes may help detect early signs of cancer. Examples of changes to note: Breast tissue Testicular tissue
Barriers to Cancer Screening & Early Detection There are many barriers that may affect one’s decision to participate in cancer screening and early detection. What barriers might Martha face?
Barriers to Cancer Screening & Early Detection (cont’d) Examples of barriers include: Fear of cancer Lack of knowledge Modesty Communication Beliefs around illness Are there others you can think of?
Possible Symptoms of Cancer There are many different symptoms known to be associated with certain types of cancers. A symptom is a sign that something is not right in the body and does NOT always indicate cancer.
Pay attention to your body if there is… A change in bowel or bladder habits A sore that does not heal Unusual bleeding or discharge Thickening, lump, or swelling in the breast or any other part of the body Indigestion or difficulty swallowing Recent change in wart or mole Nagging cough or hoarseness
Pay attention to your body if there are… Unexplained symptoms such as: Progressive weight loss Fever Skin changes Fatigue Pain
In Summary You now have an understanding of: The components of early detection Importance of recognizing the barriers to practicing early detection The symptoms of cancer