3What is Breast Cancer?Abnormal cell growth in lobes or ducts of breastBreast cells grow out of controlCells clump together forming a mass
4Breast Mass Most breast masses are not cancerous (benign) Benign masses are not life threateningSome masses are cancerous (malignant)
5Breast Cancer Risk Factors SexAgeRaceAlcohol consumptionDiet
6Lifetime Exposure to Estrogen Early menarcheLate menopauseNo pregnancies or 1st child after 30Use of birth control pills or estrogen therapy
7Breastfeeding for at least 3 months appears to lower the risk of developing breast cancer by 25%.
8Personal and Family History Have you had breast cancer before?Has your mother, sister or grandmother ever had breast cancer?Have you ever been genetically tested and are said to carry the gene?
9If you answered “yes” to any of the aforementioned questions you are at greater risk for developing breast cancer!
10Other possible risk factors ObesityPesticide and other chemical exposureCigarette smokeCharred red meat
11How do you lower your risk of breast cancer? Eat foods high in fiberEat five or more fruits & vegetables dailyInclude soy in your dietLimit fat intakeLimit alcohol consumption
12Stay Physically Fit! Exercising 4 times a week decreased risk by 58% Include weight-bearing exercise to build stronger bones
13Avoid Pesticides! Wash all produce! Peel waxed produce Consider organically grown foods
14Recognize Symptoms Early! Lump or mass in breast or under armChange in size, shape, or color of the breastBreast thickening, swelling, or tendernessDimples, puckers, or scalesPain or discharge from nipple
15Breast Cancer Screening Tests Monthly breast self exam (BSE)Examine breasts at same time monthlyBest time is right after your menstrual cycleBecome familiar with breast tissue and appearance
16Breast Cancer Screening Tests Clinical breast examPart of a physicalConducted by a physician or health care providerRecommended at least every3 years
17Mammogram X-ray that shows an image of breast tissue Can detect problems that cannot yet be seen or felt with a BSEConducted annually for women over 40
18Additional Steps:Discuss your risk and family history with your health care providerWomen at a higher risk should discuss screening schedules with a health care provider
19If you have any warning signs or symptoms, contact your provider immediately!
21Anatomy of the Prostate Small, walnut-sized glandLocated in front of the rectumPart of the male reproductive systemProduces fluid that mixes with sperm
22What is Prostate Cancer? Prostate cells grow out of controlCells clump together and form a massMasses can beNon-cancerous (benign)Cancerous (malignant)
23Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Abnormal growth of benign cells in the prostateCan press against the bladder50% of men in US between ages 60 & 70 have symptoms90% between ages 70 & 90 have symptomsMay or may not have to be treated
24Prostate Cancer Risk Factors AgeUsually occurs in men over 50Risk goes up with ageAverage age at diagnosis is 70
25Family HistoryRisk doubles if your father or brother has a history of prostate cancerMales whose mothers or sisters have had breast cancer carry a higher risk
26Race More common in African American men than Caucasian men Less common in Asian and American Indian men than Caucasian men
27Other Risk Factors Farming Diet Farmers who sprayed 250 acres or more doubled their riskDietDiets higher in fat may increase susceptibility to prostate cancer
28How do you lower your risk? Reduce animal fat in dietEspecially red meatIncrease soy consumptionSoy milkTofuStay physically fit!
29Tomatoes and high fiber diets appear to be protective in nature!
30Recognize Symptoms Early! Frequent urinationInability or difficulty urinatingWeak or interrupted flow of urinePain or burning while urinatingBlood in urine or semen
31Other possible symptoms Painful ejaculationFrequent pain or stiffnessBackHipThighsLoss of weight or appetite
32Prostate Cancer Screening Tests Digital Rectal Exam (DRE)Doctor’s examination with a lubricated fingerRecommended at 50 years oldSooner with a family history
33Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Blood testChecks level of substance produced by prostrateRecommended at 50 years oldSooner with a family historyTest does have limitations
34An elevated PSA does not necessarily mean you have cancer!
35Additional Steps:Discuss your risk and family history with your health care providerMen at a higher risk should discuss screening schedules with a health care provider
36If you have any warning signs or symptoms, contact your provider immediately!
37The earlier you detect the cancer the greater chances of successful treatment!