Presentation on theme: "INFLUENZA A H 1 N 1 R P VASHIST,M.D. HEAD PUBLIC HEALTH."— Presentation transcript:
1 INFLUENZA A H 1 N 1R P VASHIST,M.D.HEAD PUBLIC HEALTH
2 Re-assortment and Direct Transmission Human to human spreadNon-humanvirusHumanvirusThe concept of antigenic shift through the two mechanisms described in the previous slide: genetic re-assortment and direct transmission- Pigs can be infected by avian (bird), swine (pig), and human Influenza A viruses. They therefore can serve as mixing vessels for genetic re-assortment. If a pig was to be infected by both a bird and human influenza A virus, re-assortment of gene segments could occur resulting in a novel, hybrid influenza virus, part avian and part human. The resulting virus strain is referred to as a “reassortant” virus.Pigsnot involvedintransmissionReassortantvirus2
3 NEW VIRUS-major threat a novel influenza H1N1 A virus that has not been identified in people before, and human-to-human transmission of the virus is ongoing and thus represents a real pandemic threat3
4 TransmissionTransmission is mainly person-to-person through coughing or sneezing by infected peopleDisease spreads very quickly among the population especially in crowded places.People may become infected by touching/handling something contaminated with flu viruses and then touching their mouth or nose.Not transmitted by food.
5 SYMPTOMSare similar to the symptoms of regular human seasonal influenza like fever, lethargy, lack of appetite and cough. Some people have also reported runny nose, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea5
6 How Long Can an Infected Person Spread it to Others? People are contagious as long as they have symptoms, andup to 10 days after they become sickChildren, especially infants, may be contagious for longer periodsViruses can live 2 hours or longer on surfaces like tables, desks, and doorknobs.
7 CASE DEFINITION- suspected case is defined as a person with acute febrile respiratory illness (fever ≥ 38o C)with onset within 10 days of close contact with a person who is a confirmed case of influenza A H1N1 infection,or with onset within 10 days of travel to areas having confirmed influenza A H1N1 cases,Or resides in a community where there are confirmed influenza AH1N1cases.
9 Swine Flu: Educating the Public Covering nose and mouth with a hanky/ tissue when coughing or sneezingWashing hands with soap and water – especially after coughing or sneezing.Avoiding close contact with sick peopleAvoiding touching eyes, nose or mouth with unwashed handsIf sick with influenza, staying home from work or school and limit contact with others
10 FAQ- What should I do to keep from getting the flu? First and most important:wash your hands frequently.Try to stay in good general health.Get plenty of sleep, be physically active, manage your stress, drink plenty of fluids, and eat nutritious food.Avoid touching surfaces that may be contaminated with the flu virus.Avoid close contact with people having respiratory illness.
11 FAQ-Are there medicines to treat swine flu? Yes. The use of oseltamivir for the treatment of infection with these influenza viruses is recommended. Antiviral drug/s fight against the flu by keeping flu viruses from reproducing in your body. If you get sick, antiviral drugs can make your illness milder and make you feel better faster. They may also prevent serious flu complications. For treatment, antiviral drugs work best if started soon after getting sick (within 2 days of symptoms).
12 FAQ-Can surfaces be most likely to be sources of contamination? Germs can spread when a person touches something that is contaminated with germs and then touches his or her eyes, nose, or mouth.Droplets from a cough or sneeze of an infected person move through the air. Heavy droplets settle on surfaces ,in addition discharge from nose etc can contaminate the surfaces
13 FAQ-How long can viruses live outside the body? We know that some viruses and bacteria can live 2 hours or longer on surfaces like tables, doorknobs, and desks. Frequent hand washing will help you reduce the chance of getting contamination from these common surfaces.
14 FAQ-What can I do to protect myself from getting sick? Currently available influenza vaccine does not protect against a H1H1 flu. There are everyday actions that can help prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like influenza. Take these everyday steps to protect your health:Cover your nose and mouth with a hanky/tissue when you cough or sneeze.Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze.Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Germs spread this way.Try to avoid close contact with people having respiratory illness.If one gets sick with influenza, one must stay at home, away from work or school and limit contact with others to keep from infecting them. However, if one is having any respiratory distress, one should report to a nearby hospital.
15 Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath FAQ-What are the emergency warning signs in adults that need urgent medical attentionDifficulty breathing or shortness of breathPain or pressure in the chest or abdomenSudden dizzinessConfusionSevere or persistent vomiting
16 Do’s and Don’ts:Avoid close contact with people who are having respiratory illness.Sick persons should keep distance from others.If possible, stay at home, away from work, school, and public places when you are sick.Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or handkerchief when coughing or sneezing.If you have no tissue or handkerchief you should not clean the nose with the hands but with the cuff of your shirt or clothes.Washing your hands often with soap or alcohol based hand wash will help protect from germs.Get plenty of sleep, be physically active, manage your stress, drink plenty of fluids, and eat nutritious food.
17 Close Contacts of confirmed cases should be advised to remain at home (voluntary home quarantine) for the remaining days out of 10 days after the last contact with the case. Monitoring of fever should be done. Prompt testing and hospitalization must be done when symptoms are reported in the contactsChemo-prophylaxis should be given to contcts for period from 5-10 days as per the risk
18 Swine Flu: Educating the Public Covering nose and mouth with a tissue when coughing or sneezing – Dispose the tissue in the trash after use.Hand washing with soap and water – Especially after coughing or sneezing.Cleaning hands with alcohol-based hand cleanersAvoiding close contact with sick peopleAvoiding touching eyes, nose or mouth with unwashed handsIf sick with influenza, staying home from work or school and limit contact with others to keep from infecting them