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Presentation on theme: "IMMIGRATION & CITIZENSHIP"— Presentation transcript:

A Nation of Immigrants Immigrants (a person who comes to a new country intending to live there permanently) Aliens (a person who lives in a country where they are not a citizen)

2 Classifying Aliens Resident Aliens: a person from a foreign country that has established permanent residence in the US. (immigrants are resident aliens until they become citizens) Non-resident aliens: a person from a foreign country who expects to stay in the US for a short, specified period of time.

3 Enemy Alien: a citizen of a nation with which the US is at war
Enemy Alien: a citizen of a nation with which the US is at war. They get the same protection as other types of aliens but discrimination by public. Refugees: people fleeing to escape persecution or danger Illegal Aliens: a person who comes to the US without a legal permit (passport, visa, entry permit). Some cross US borders, many are foreigners who have stayed after legal permits expired

4 Alien’s Rights Bill of Rights applies to aliens as well as citizens.
Supreme Court has repeatedly struck down attempts by state govt.’s from attempting to limit legal alien’s rights. Aliens are expected to share in the responsibilities of American life: taxes, obey laws, be loyal to govt. Cannot vote and are exempt from military service

5 Immigration Policy 1882-1924: The Growth of Restrictions
1882: Chinese Exclusion Act, restricted admission of Chinese laborers, Prevented foreign-born Chinese from getting citizenship. First instance of a federal govt. restricted immigration or citizenship based on nationality or ethnic group

6 Restrictions grew over the next 3 decades as fear grew about immigrants taking away jobs from US citizens Fear over appearance of Asian, southern and eastern European immigrants, as well as language, customs, religion was due to how different these people were from earlier English, Irish and German immigrants

7 1924-1965: National Origins Quotas
Johnson Act: Immigration Act of 1924, lowered the number of immigrants allowed in to the US to 165,000 per year, 80% decrease Set up a system that favored immigrants from northern and western Europe.

8 Immigration Reform Act 1965:
Abolished the system of quotas Two categories of immigrants: Eastern Hemisphere immigrants: (Europe, Asia, Africa) limited to 170,000 per year Western Hemisphere immigrants: (Canada, Mexico, Central and South America) limited to 120,000 per year.

9 Set up preference categories for people with special skills “advantageous to the US” and unmarried children of US citizens were given highest preference Refugees from Communist countries, the Middle east and people who were victims of natural disasters were given lowest priority

10 Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986
To control illegal immigration, provided a way for illegal immigrants to become permanent residents (Green card holders) and citizens. 4 major provisions of the law: 1. Aliens who could show the entered US before and resided continuously could apply for amnesty (a general pardon). They would become lawful residents and could apply for citizenship after 18 months. 2. After 5 years of permanent residence in the US aliens may apply for US citizenship. 3. Employers are forbidden to hire illegal immigrants 4. Employers are required to ask applicants for documentation to prove their legal status before hiring them.

11 Immigration Act 1990 Sweeping revision to 1965 law. New law was designed to take into account country of origin and admit more highly skilled and educated immigrants. Immigration from any single country to no more that 7% of annual visas Encouraged immigration of workers with “extraordinary abilities” who had a guaranteed job when entering the US.

12 The Basis of Citizenship
The govt. draws its power from the people and exists in order to secure their rights. Citizens have certain duties; obeying the law, paying taxes, and loyalty. Citizens are responsible for voting, informing themselves, respect the rights of others, etc. 14th Amendment: All people of all races born in the US and subject to its government are citizens.

13 Citizenship by birth Jus soli: law of the soil, citizenship is granted to nearly anyone born in the US or its territories, most common basis of citizenship Jus sanguinis: law of blood, birth to an American parent or parents. If both parents are citizens, one has to have been a legal resident at some point in their life If one parent is a citizen, that parent must have lived in the US for at least 10 years, 5 of which after the age of 14

14 Citizenship by naturalization
Immigrants have to have entered the US legally, be of good moral character, declare their support of the principles of American govt., Prove they can read, write, and speak English Show basic knowledge of American history and govt. Filing of an application after 5 years of resident alien status preliminary hearing, test of qualifications, final hearing, formality

15 Losing citizenship Expatriation, giving up your citizenship to live in a foreign country Punishment for a crime; treason, rebellion, overthrow of the govt. Denaturalization; fraud during naturalization process Responsibilities of citizens: the ability to exercise your rights depends on your awareness of them Rights and laws Participation voting


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