2 What is citizenship/citizens?? A member of a political community with rights and responsibilities
3 Rights vs. Responsibilities Rights of CitizensResponsibilities of CitizensFreedom of speech, religion, bare arms, etc.Right to own propertyFreedom from discriminationEquality under the lawRight to voteJury dutyPay taxesObey lawsRegister for selective serviceRegister to voteTolerate othersBe educated!!
4 14th Amendment Defined citizenship in the United States “All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States.”Guaranteed that people of ALL races born in the U.S. and subject to its government are citizens
6 #1: Citizenship by the “Law of the Land” AKA jus soliCitizenship is granted to nearly all people born in the United States or United States territoriesMost common form of citizenshipChildren born to immigrant parents or to foreigners just “visiting” the United States WOULD BE citizensSome ExceptionsIf a foreign diplomat had a child in the United States, their child WOULD NOT be a citizen
7 #2: Citizenship by Birth to an American Parent AKA jus sanguinis– “law of the blood”Sometimes complicatedIf a child was born in a foreign nation and BOTH parents are United States citizens, the child is a citizen ONLY IFOne of the parents must have been a legal resident of the United States at some point in their livesIF only ONE parent is an American citizen, that parent must have lived in the U.S. for at least 5 years (2 of those years had to be after the age of 14).
8 #3: NaturalizationThe process that allows immigrants to become American citizensQualifications1) Applicants must have entered the U.S. legally by obtaining a VISA2) Must be of good moral character3) Ability to read, write and speak English4) Must declare their support of the principles of the American government5) Must show the basic knowledge of American History & Government
14 InvestigationFingerprinted, asked questions about their moral character, question witnesses about applicant, interviewed.English & Civics test
15 Oath of AllegianceA judge of the federal district court gives the oath of allegiance to the applicant
16 Naturalized citizens MAY NEVER be the President or Vice-President NaturalizationNaturalized citizens MAY NEVER be the President or Vice-President
17 Dual CitizenshipA person is a citizen of two countries at the same timeExample: Two U.S. citizens have a child in a foreign country. The child would be a U.S. citizen as BOTH parents are U.S. citizens and also a citizen by birth in the country they were born in.
18 Losing CitizenshipOnly the federal government can both grant and take away citizenship3 ways to lose citizenshipExpatriation: giving up one’s citizenship by leaving one’s native country to live in a foreign countryA person who becomes a naturalized citizen in another country automatically loses their U.S. citizenship
19 Losing Citizenship Punishment for a crime When convicted of certain federal crimes such as treason, rebellion & attempts to overthrow the government through violent means
20 Losing Citizenship Denaturalization Loss of citizenship if fraud or deception is detected during the naturalization process
21 Immigrants/Aliens AKA “aliens” A person who lives in one country where he or she is not a citizenNot all immigrants intend to become citizens (work, school, etc. only)
22 Alien Classifications Resident alien: person from a foreign nation who has established a permanent residence in the U.S.Can stay in the U.S. as long as they wish without becoming a citizenNon-Resident Alien: person from a foreign country who expects to stay in the United States for a short period of time (media reporter)
23 Alien Classifications Enemy Alien: citizen of a nation with which the United States is at warRefugee: people fleeing to escape persecution or danger in their own countryIllegal Alien: person who comes to the U.S. without a legal permitIllegally cross the border (Mexico/Canada, etc.)