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Anti-Semitism  Discrimination or hostility, often violent, directed at Jews.

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Presentation on theme: "Anti-Semitism  Discrimination or hostility, often violent, directed at Jews."— Presentation transcript:


2 Anti-Semitism  Discrimination or hostility, often violent, directed at Jews

3 Genocide  The deliberate destruction of an entire ethnic or cultural group

4 The Holocaust  Nazi Germany’s systematic murder of European Jews, Gypsies, Homosexuals, homeless, and Mentally and Physically Disabled

5 Nazi Policies  April 1, 1933- One day boycott of Jewish Businesses  Nuremburg Laws (1935) Banned German/Jew mixed marriages Jews are no longer German citizens Considered Jewish if 2 or more of your Grandparents were Jews If you were a mix you were known as a Mischling Jews and Mischlings had no political or social rights

6 Nazi Policies  1938- Jews had to surrender their businesses to Germans for a fraction of their value  Forced to wear the yellow Star of David  All Jews were given the middle name Sarah or Israel depending on their gender so they could be identified  Jewish students were expelled from public schools  Jewish doctors could not help non-Jews

7 Hitler’s Henchmen  SS (Schutzstaffel) – elite guard, guarded concentration camps  Gestapo – Nazi Political Police  Einsatzgruppen – Mobile Killing Units Usually rounded up their victims, took them to gullies or pits and shot them Killed 53,000 Jews in 2 days in Kiev (USSR)

8 Kristallnacht  November 9, 1938  “Night of Broken Glass”  Nazi followers destroyed Jewish stores, houses, and synagogues  Nearly every synagogue (Jewish Temple) was destroyed  The remaining Jews sought to leave the country by any means possible

9 Ghettos  Warsaw Ghetto  Millions of Jews were put into Ghettos (self contained areas, usually surrounded by a fence, wall, or armed guards)  Warsaw ghetto – Put 30% of the Polish Capital’s population into an area the size of 3% of the city (400,000 people)

10 Concentration Camps  Camps where political prisoners are confined, usually under harsh conditions

11 Concentration Camps

12 Wansee Conference  January 1942  Nazi officials met to discuss “Final Solution” to the “Jewish Question”  Outlined the plan to construct more death camps in Poland that would exterminate the Jews and undesirables

13 Death Camps  Unlike concentration camps, death camps were constructed primarily for mass murder  Six of these camps were constructed in Poland At 4 of the 6 camps most were killed immediately after arrival  The Poison gas Zyklon B was used to kill many of those who died  Disguised gas chambers as showers, gassed the Jews to death, then cremated them in mass ovens  At Auschwitz 12,000 could be killed and cremated in a day  1.5 million died at Auschwitz (90% Jews)

14 Life at a Death Camp  At camps like Auschwitz, those that were not immediately killed suffered the worst  Life expectancy for a normal Jew was a few months  Prisoners were tattooed with a number, starved, beaten, and often sickly  Some Jews underwent medical experiments  Those too weak to work were sent to the gas chambers

15 Auschwitz Gas Chambers

16 Auschwitz Crematorium

17 Auschwitz Entrance

18 Auschwitz Train Entrance


20 Fighting Back  Some Jews resisted the Nazis  Jews in several Ghettos formed underground resistance groups and took part in violent uprisings  Rioting Jews in the Treblinka death camp damaged the camp so badly it had to be closed  Escape was the most common form of resistance, although it normally failed  Word got back to the Warsaw Ghetto that the 300,000 Jews taken from the Ghetto to the Treblinka death camp were exterminated  The 50,000 Jews remaining in the Ghetto fought back against the Nazis with handguns and homemade bombs Stopped the deportations for a while

21 Rescue and Liberation  U.S. knew about the mass murder of the Jews as early as Nov. 1942  1944 - Roosevelt created the War Refugee Board (WRB) to try to help people threatened by the Nazis  Saved 200,000 lives  As Allied forces advanced at the end of the war they discovered the camps and freed the Jews  Many Jews were killed by Germans when they discovered the Americans were coming to liberate them  Other Jews were marched from the camps to escape the American advancement, many died  holocaust/videos#concentration-camp-liberation holocaust/videos#concentration-camp-liberation

22 Nuremburg Trials  November 1945  Allied troops convicted 24 Nazis of war crimes and crimes against humanity  12 sentenced to death  Rejected the Nazis’ argument that they were following orders  Showed that individuals must be responsible for their own actions

23 Holocaust Statistics:  6 million Jews perished  5-6 million other people would also die in Nazi captivity (Gypsies, Mentally and Physically Disabled, Homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and political prisoners)  11 Million total  91% of Polish Jews died  Two thirds of Europe’s Jews died

24 Animated Map 

25 Pre War Jewish Population

26 Post Holocaust Jewish Population

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