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The Chain of Infection.

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Presentation on theme: "The Chain of Infection."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Chain of Infection

2 As healthcare professionals, it is important to understand two things about infection:

3 the various ways infection can be transmitted
2. the ways the infection chain can be broken

4 There are six links in the chain of infection :

5 1st - The Infectious Agent
-any disease-causing microorganism (pathogen)

6 Types of Microorganisms
Bacteria- simple one-celled organisms Cocci (round shape-e.g.., streptococci) Bacilli (rod shaped – e.g., TB) Spirilla (spiral shape – e.g., syphilis) Protozoa – one-celled animals often found in decayed materials & contaminated water (amebic dysentery, malaria) Fungi - Plant-like organisms that live on dead organic matter (yeasts and molds – e.g., thrush) Rickettsiae (parasitic organisms – fleas, ticks, mites – e.g., Lyme disease) Viruses - smallest microbes (HIV, Hepatitis B and C) Helmiths - parasitic worms

7 -the organism/place in which the infectious microbes reside
2nd - The Reservoir -the organism/place in which the infectious microbes reside

8 What are “Carrier Hosts”
Hosts that do not show any outward signs or symptoms of a disease but are still capable of transmitting the disease are known as carriers.

9 -route of escape of the pathogen from the reservoir.
3rd - The Portal of Exit -route of escape of the pathogen from the reservoir. Examples: respiratory secretions, blood exposure, breaks in skin

10 4th - The Route of Transmission
-method by which the pathogen gets from the reservoir to the new host

11 Transmission may occur through:
direct contact

12 air

13 insects

14 5th - The Portal of Entry -route through which the pathogen enters its new host

15 Respiratory System inhalation

16 Gastrointestinal System

17 Urinary & Reproductive Tracts
Sexual contact

18 Breaks in Protective Skin Barrier

19 6th - The Susceptible Host
-the organism that accepts the pathogen The support of pathogen life & its reproduction depend on the degree of the host’s resistance.

20 Organisms with strong immune systems are better able to fend off pathogens.

21 Organisms with weakened immune systems are more vulnerable to the support & reproduction of pathogens.

22 How to interrupt the chain of infection:
-The essential part of patient care & self-protection.

23 1. Pathogen Identification
-identification of infectious agent & appropriate treatment

24 2. Asepsis & Hygiene -potential hosts & carriers must practice asepsis & maintain proper personal hygiene

25 3. Control Portals of Exit
-healthcare personnel must practice standard precautions:

26 (Control body secretions & wash hands according to protocol.)

27 4. Prevent a Route of Transmission
-prevent direct or indirect contact by: Proper handwashing Disinfection & sterilization techniques Isolation of infected patients Not working when contagious

28 5. Protect Portal of Entry
-Health professionals must make sure that ports of entry are not subjected to pathogens. (nose, mouth, eyes, urinary tract, open wounds, etc.)

29 6. Recognition of Susceptible Host
-health professionals must recognize & protect high-risk patients

30 Cancer Patients AIDS Patients Transplant Patients Infant & Elderly Patients

31 Remember--breaking the chain of infection is the responsibility
of each health professional.

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