Presentation on theme: "Leadership and Trait Theory"— Presentation transcript:
1 Leadership and Trait Theory The process of influencing employees to work toward the achievement of organizational objectives.Leadership versus ManagementLeadership is a functional activity incorporated with the broader scope of management activities.Managers lacking the ability to influence others are not true leaders.Website on leadership theories
2 Leadership Trait Theory Leadership Trait TheoristsAttempt to determine a list of distinctive characteristics accounting for leadership effectiveness.Have been unsuccessful in identifying a universal set of traits that all leaders possess.Ghiselli StudyConcluded that certain traits are important to effective leadership; supervisory ability (getting work done through others) being the most important.
3 Behavioral Leadership Theories Behavioral Leadership TheoristsEarly researchers attempted to identify the “best leadership style” for all situations.Attempted to determine distinctive styles used by effective leaders.Eventually focused on the relationship between leaders and followers.Leadership StyleThe combination of traits, skills, and behaviors managers use to interact with employees.
4 Basic Leadership Styles Autocratic LeaderOne who makes all the decisions, tells employees what to do, and closely supervises employees.Considered a Theory X-type leader.Democratic LeaderOne who encourages employee participation in decisions, works with employees to determine what to do, and does not closely supervise employees.Considered a Theory Y-type leader.
5 Basic Leadership Styles Laissez-Faire LeaderOne who takes a leave-the-employees-alone approach, allowing them to make the decisions and decide what to do.
6 Two-Dimensional Leadership Styles Based on job structure and employee consideration, which result in four possible leadership styles.Structuring (of the job) and consideration (for the employee) styles (Ohio State University)Job-centered (focusing on the task) and employee centered styles (University of Michigan)
7 The Ohio State University and University of Michigan Two-Dimensional Leadership Styles Exhibit 13–1
10 Contemporary Perspectives Charismatic LeadershipA leadership style that inspires loyalty, enthusiasm, and high levels of performance.Can Charisma be learned?Transformational LeadershipA leadership style that brings about continuous learning, innovation, and change.Transactional LeadershipBased on leadership style and exchange.Symbolic LeadershipBased on establishing and maintaining a strong organizational culture.
11 Situational Leadership Theories Situational Leadership TheoristsAttempt to determine the appropriate leadership style for various situations.Contingency leadership theoryLeadership continuumPath-goal theoryNormative leadership theorySituational leadership theoryLeadership substitutes and neutralizers“Should the leader change style or should the situation be changed to fit the leader’s style?”
12 Contingency Leadership Model (Fiedler) Used to determine if one’s leadership style is task- or relationship-oriented and if the situation matches the leader’s style.Leadership styleThe Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scales measure a leader’s task (job) or relationship (employee) orientation.Situational favorablenessLeader member relations (good or poor?)Task structure (structured or unstructured?)Position power (strong or weak?)
14 The Leadership Continuum Model Leadership Continuum Model (Tannenbaum and Schmidt)Used to determine which of seven styles to select based on one’s use of boss-centered versus employee-centered leadership.Factors determining selection of style:The manager’s preferred leadership styleThe subordinates’ preference for participationThe situation: organization’s size, structure, climate, goals, technology, and higher-level management leadership style
16 Path-Goal Model Path-Goal Model (House) Used to determine employee objectives and to clarify how to achieve them using one of four styles.Considers subordinate factors and environmental factors in determining the appropriate leadership style that promotes goal achievement through employee performance and satisfaction.Leadership stylesDirective: leader provides high structure.Supportive: leader provides high consideration.Participative: employees participate in decisions.Achievement-oriented: sets difficult but achievable goals
18 Normative Leadership Model Normative Leadership Model (Vroom and Jago)A decision tree that enables the user to select one of the five leadership styles appropriate for the situation.Determination of leadership style is based on two factors:The importance of individual versus group decisions (input and participation).The importance of time-driven versus development-driven decisions (time-pressure and quality of decision).
19 Situational Leadership Model Situational Leadership Model (Hersey and Blanchard)Used to select one of four leadership styles that match the employees’ maturity level in a given situation.Telling: high structure, low considerationSelling: high structure, high considerationParticipating: high consideration, low structureDelegating: low consideration, low structure
20 Situational Leadership Model HighParticipatingSellingRelationshipBehaviorDelegatingTellingLowLow Task Behavior HighExhibit 13–6
21 Leadership Substitutes Theory Substitutes for LeadershipCharacteristics of the task, subordinates, or the organization that replace the need for a leader.SubordinatesAbility, knowledge, experience, training, independence, professional orientation, indifference to rewardsTaskClarity and routine, methodology, feedback, intrinsic satisfactionOrganizationFormalization, flexibility, support, cohesiveness
22 Putting the Leadership Theories Together Exhibit13–7
23 The Employee Complaint Model 1. Listen to the complaint and paraphrase it.2. Have complainer recommend a solution.3. Schedule time to get all the facts and/or make a decision.4. Develop a plan.5. Implement the plan and follow up.Model 13–1
24 The Customer Complaint Model 1. Admit the mistake and apologize.2. Agree on a solution (have the customer recommend a solution).3. Implement the solution quickly.4. Prevent future complaints.Model 13–2