5 The Cell CycleThe series of events a cell undergoes from the time it is formed until it grows and reproduces new cells:Interphase – resting and growth phase where the cell spends most of its lifeMitosis – division phase where the nucleus divides (Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase) *PMATCytokinesis – cell division where the cell divides in half
7 Normal Cells (NC) Cancerous Cells (CC) Once NC grow and mature, cell division stops because able to fully functionCC keep on dividing, never mature, thus do not stop growing and not fully functioning
8 DNA mutations disrupt the cell cycle. Mutations may be caused by:1. radiation2. smoking3. Pollutants4. chemicals5. viruses
9 Cancer CellsCancer cells experience uncontrolled and disorganized cell growthCancer cells enter mitosis repeatedly and never grow to maturityCancer cells eventually form a growth called tumorTumors invades and destroys neighbouring healthy cells
10 Two Main Types of Cancer CarcinomaSarcomaSkinBoneLining of hollow organs and passagewaysMuscleLymphcartilage
11 OBJECTIVE List two types of tumours and explain how they are different Explain metastasis
12 Tumour – Growth of Abnormal Cells Benign tumourGrows slowlyLocalized areaMalignant tumourgrows slow or fast depending on type of cancerInvades other tissues and/or travels to other parts of bodyCauses death if not treated and controlledTHE IMPORTANT DIFFERENCE B/W BENIGN AND MALIGNANT TUMOURS IS THAT ONE INVADES AND SPREADS (MALIGNANT)
13 Benign Tumors (Not Cancerous) Malignant Tumors (Cancerous) As they grow benign tumors simply push the surrounding normal tissues and organs out of their way.Malignant tumors eat into and destroy the normal tissue around them as they increase in size.Sometimes pressure from a benign tumor may damage surrounding structures but the benign tumor never actually invades into those structures.Malignant tumors invade and damage structures.Benign tumors can grow quite large without causing any problems.Malignant tumor damages the tissue around it from the time it first begins to grow.Benign tumors do not spread. They may grow to a large size but they do not go to other parts of the body.Malignant tumors have the ability to spread by sending off seedlings of tumor which can pass through the blood or lymphatic system to other parts of the body. These seedlings then settle in other organs and form what are called secondary tumors or metastases.
17 OBJECTIVEList the seven warning signs of cancer
18 Caution – Seven Early Warning Signs of Cancer Change in bowel or bladder habitsA sore that does not healUnusual bleeding or dischargeThickening or lump in breast or elsewhereIndigestion or difficulty in swallowingObvious changes in wart or moleNagging cough or hoarseness
19 OBJECTIVEDescribe the three most common types of treatment for cancer
20 Standard Cancer Treatment SurgeryRadiation therapyChemotherapyOralIntramuscularIntravenous
21 Chemotherapy*Treatment of cancer with an antineoplastic drugor in combination with such drugs*****Antineoplastic drugs (control or kill neoplastic cells – part of tumor)*The most common chemotherapy agents act by killing cells that divide rapidly*Chemotherapy also harms cells that divide rapidly under normal circumstances: cells in the bone marrow, digestive tract, and hair follicles.
22 Side-effects of chemotherapy *Decreased production of blood cells (because it affects the bone marrow)*Inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract*Hair loss (because it affects the hair follicles)
23 Radiation TherapyRadiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to shrink tumors and kill cancer cellsThe radiation may be delivered by a machine outside the body (external-beam radiation therapy), or it may come from radioactive material placed in the body near cancer cells (internal radiation therapy, also called brachytherapy).Systemic radiation therapy uses radioactive substances, such as radioactive iodine, that travel in the blood to kill cancer cells
24 How does Radiation Therapy kill cancerous cells? Radiation therapy kills cancer cells by damaging their DNACancer cells whose DNA is damaged beyond repair stop dividing or dieHowever radiation therapy can also damage normal cells, leading to side effects
25 Side effects of Radiation Therapy Skin irritationsDamage to salivary glandsFatigueNauseaVomitingDamage to the bowels, causing diarrhea and bleeding.Memory loss.Infertility (inability to have a child).
26 REVIEWDefine cancer.Discuss cancer in relation to normal cells and the cell cycle.List two types of tumours. What is the main difference?What acronym is used for the 7 early warning signs of cancer? List the 7 signsDescribe each of the 3 most common cancer treatments – add to existing answer.Add to your answer for metastasis