2 What is Cancer? Uncontrolled cellular division of abnormal cells Caused by the genetic code in the cell’s DNACrowds out the healthy cells and can start to spread to other parts of the body – METASTASIZEHundreds of different varieties
3 Cancer Cell GrowthOccurs in any part of an animal or plant where cells are growing and dividingCONTACT INHIBITIONNormal cells form one layer.Replication or cell divisionstops upon contact withneighboring cellsCancer cells DO NOT havecontact inhibition, so they“pile up” on each other formingtumors or “clumped cells”
4 Tumors BENIGN MALIGNANT No serious health problems Grow slowly Non-invasiveAre NOT carried by bloodEasily removableNOT considered CancerMALIGNANTVery serious health problemsRapid growthInvasive – pushes into surrounding normal tissueCan be carried by blood or lymph to other areas of the body = METASTASISNot as easy to removeCancer!
5 What causes cancer? Everyone has pre-cancerous cells Continual irritation of these pre-cancerous cells triggers the development of cancerMore than 80% of cancers are caused by exposure to CARCINOGENS (substances that promote the development of cancer)ChemicalsRadiation (x-rays, UV light)Viruses (herpes simplex 1 & 2 linked to cervical cancer)
6 Stages of Cancer Describes how far cancer has spread Stage I – small, localized, usually curableStage II – larger tumor, lymph may be affectedStage III – even larger tumor, lymph affectedStage IV – usually inoperable, metastasis
7 Stages of Cancer - TNM TNM Staging – more precise system T = Tumor (T0-T4 depends on size, invasiveness)N = Nodes (N0-N4 indicates lymph involvement)M = Metastasis (M0 or M1)Examples: T1N1M0T3N4M1
10 Treatments Surgery – removal of a localized tumor Number 1 optionCan stop cancer from spreadingUsually followed by radiation or chemotherapyRadiation – damages cancer cells (but also damages surrounding healthy cells)Chemotherapy – strong doses of chemicals are used to kill cancerous cellsGiven orally or through injections
11 Treatments Immunotherapy Kill cancer cells by using chemicals such as interferon (naturally occurring in our body) to help stimulate our immune system to fightVaccine – also used to stimulate immune system
12 Treatments Hormone Treatment Bone Marrow Transplant Alternative Reduces the amount of hormones produced in the body which can decrease the rate at which cancer can spread (breast, prostate, uterine)Bone Marrow TransplantReplace bone marrow to begin new production of red blood cellsAlternativeDietAcupuncture (for minimizing pain, post operative swelling, vomiting from chemo)Hyperthermia – heat to destroy cancer cells
13 Prevention of Cancer Major Risk Factors Smoking Tobacco UV exposure 1/3 of ALL cancer deaths in US caused by tobacco smokeUV exposureDiet & Lack of Exerciseoverconsumption of alcohol, fat, and foods that have been smoked, cured, pickled, or charredLack of dietary fiber or antioxidant vitamins and mineralsRadiation (x-rays, radioactive substances)CARCINOGENS – chemicals that increase cancer risk (asbestos, uranium, radon, cadmium)
14 Are you at risk?Everyone's cancer risk profile is complex and unique – genetics, environment, and lifestyle choices all factor in to your chance of developing cancer!