Transactional Leadership Differs from transformational because it does not individualize followers needs or focus on their personal development Transactional leadership is an exchange – you scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours. The idea is to advance both parties agendas by helping each other. This can be influential because in order for the followers to succeed – the leader must be successful as well.
Transformational Leadership 2 factors –Contingent Reward – an exchange process between leaders and followers in which effort by followers is exchanged for specific rewards. The leader tries to obtain agreements from followers on what must be done and what the payoffs will be for the people doing it. –Management by Exception – involves corrective criticism, negative feedback, and negative enforcement. 2 forms – active and passive Active – watches followers closely for mistakes or rule violations and then takes corrective action. Passive – the leader intervenes only after standards have not been met or problems have arisen.
Transactional Pros –Sets clear goals with rewards for making them (however problems if they are not met)
Transactional Cons –Can be seen as a reward/punishment system –Leader is concerned with their own status quo and will put themselves before the followers –Management for exception is a poor example of a supervisor –Offers few advantages to followers and can be very unhappy work environment
Team leadership is the most rapidly growing area of current research Team = organizational groups composed of members who are interdependent, who share common goals, and who must coordinate the actives to accomplish these goals. Team work is characteristic of the Millennial generation (that’s you!)
Team Leadership Effective team performance begins with the leader’s mental model of the situation. This model consists of both the problem confronting the team and the environment. A good team leader is flexible and has a wide repertoire of actions or skills to meet the team’s diverse needs. The leader has special responsibility for functioning in a manner that will help the group achieve effectiveness. Leadership behavior is seen as team based problem solving by analyzing the internal and external situation and then selecting the appropriate behaviors to ensure team effectiveness.
Team Leadership 1 st decision – take action or observe 2 nd decision – determine the general task or relational function of the intervention that is needed. Final decision – intervene at the internal level (with the team itself) or external level (the team’s environment)
Internal Task Leadership Actions –Goal focusing –Structuring for results (planning, visioning, organizing, clarifying roles, delegating) –Facilitating decision making –Training team members in task completion –Maintaining standards of excellence (assessing team and individual performance, confronting inadequate performance)
Team Leadership External Environment Leadership Actions –Networking and forming alliances in environment –Advocating and representing team to environment –Negotiation upward to secure necessary resources, support and recognition for team –Buffering team members from environmental distractions –Assessing environmental indicators of team’s effectiveness –Sharing relevant environmental information with the team
Pros –Research was focused on real-life organizational work groups and the leadership needed therein –Helps leaders design and maintain effective teams, especially when performance is below standards –Takes into account the changing role of leaders and followers in organizations –Theory can help in the selection of team leaders
Team Leadership Cons –Model has not been completed supported or tested –Teams are very complex and therefore hard to work with in (or explain) –Does not offer on the spot answers to specific situation for the team leader
References Northouse, P.G. (2007) Leadership Theory and Practice. Sage Publications, Inc. Thousand Oaks, CA.