Presentation on theme: "Foundations of Leadership Studies"— Presentation transcript:
1Foundations of Leadership Studies Chapter 15LeadershipFoundations of Leadership Studies
2Inspirational Approaches to Leadership Charismatic LeadershipTransactional leadershipTransformational Leadership
3Charismatic leadership theory Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviorsPeople working for charismatic leaders are motivated to exert extra work effort and, because they like and respect their leaders, express greater satisfactionCharisma leadership appears to be most appropriate when the followers’ task has a ideological component or when the environment involves a high degree of stress and uncertainty
4Key Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders Vision and articulation. Has a vision—expressed as an idealized goal—that proposes a future better than the status quo; and is able to clarify the importance of the vision in terms that are understandable to others.Personal risk. Willing to take on high personal risk, incur high costs and engage in self-sacrifice to achieve the vision.Environmental sensitivity. Able to make realistic assessments of the environmental constraints and resources needed to bring about change.Sensitivity to follower needs. Perceptive of others’ abilities and responsive to their needs and feelings.Unconventional behavior. Engages in behaviors that are perceived as novel and counter to norms.
5Beyond Charismatic Leadership Level 5 LeadersPossess a fifth dimension—a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will—in addition to the four basic leadership qualities of individual capability, team skills, managerial competence, and the ability to stimulate others to high performance.Channel their ego needs away from themselves and into the goal of building a great company.
6Consequences of Charismatic Leadership Positive and Negative CharismaticsDetermined by examining the consequences for followersNegative charismatics have a personalized power orientationPositive charismatics have a socialized power orientation
7Consequences of Charismatic Leadership The Dark Side of Charisma Being in awe of the leader reduces good suggestions by followersDesire for leader acceptance inhibits criticism by followersAdoration by followers creates delusions about the leaderExcessive confidence and optimism blind the leader to real dangersDenial of problems and failures reduces organizational learning
8Consequences of Charismatic Leadership Risky, grandiose projects are more likely to failTaking complete credit for successes alienates some key followersImpulsive, nontraditional behavior creates enemiesDependence on the leader inhibits development of competent successorsFailure to develop successors creates an eventual leadership crisis
9Transactional and Transformational Leadership Transformational leadership appeals to the moral values of followers to raise their consciousness and mobilize their energiesTransactional leadership motivates followers by appealing to their self-interest and exchanging benefits
10Transactional Leaders Contingent RewardManagement by Exception (active)Management by Exception (passive)Laissez-FaireTransactional LeadersLeaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.Transformational LeadersLeaders who provide the four “I’s” (individualized consideration, inspirational motivation, idealized influence, and intellectual stimulation)Idealized InfluenceInspirational MotivationIntellectual StimulationIndividual Consideration
11Characteristics of Transactional Leaders Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments.Management by Exception (active): Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action.Management by Exception (passive): Intervenes only if standards are not met.Laissez-Faire: abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions.
12TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP KEEPS THE SYSTEM OPERATING SMOOTHLYUSES REWARD AND COERCIVE POWER BASESRECOGNIZES WHAT WORKERS WANT & TRIES TO DELIVER ITREWARDS ACCORDING TO WORKER EFFORTRESPONSIVE TO WORKER SELF-INTERESTS
13Characteristics of Transformational Leaders Idealized Influence: Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust.Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways.Intellectual Stimulation: Promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving.Individualized Consideration: Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches, advises.
14TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP INSPIRATIONAL, IDEA-ORIENTED, VISIONARYDRAMATIC, AROUSES INTENSE FEELINGSCOMMUNICATES HIGH EXPECTATIONS & A NEED FOR CHANGEUNPREDICTABLERELIES ON REFERENT OR CHARISMATIC POWERRAISES LEVEL OF AWARENESS AND COMMITMENTGETS FOLLOWERS TO TRANSCEND THEIR SELF-INTERESTSREQUIRES TRUST AND BELIEF IN THE VISION PRESENTEDIS TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP BUILT “ON TOP OF” TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP, OR IS IT JUST A SPECIAL CASE OF CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP?
15Transformational Leadership Facilitating ConditionsSome aspects of transformational leadership are relevant in most, if not all, situationsDynamic, unstable environment that increases the need for changeLeaders are encouraged to be flexible and innovativeFollower traits and values
16Guidelines for Transformational Leadership Articulate a clear and appealing visionExplain how the vision can be attainedAct confident and optimisticExpress confidence in followersUse dramatic, symbolic actions to emphasize key valuesLead by example