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LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Situational Approach Chapter 5.

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Presentation on theme: "LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Situational Approach Chapter 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Situational Approach Chapter 5

2 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Overview  Situational Approach Perspective  Leadership Styles  Developmental Levels  How Does the Situational Approach Work? Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. 2

3 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Situational Approach Description (Hersey & Blanchard, 1969)  Focuses on leadership in situations  Emphasizes adapting style - different situations demand different kinds of leadership  Used extensively in organizational leadership training and development “Leaders match their style to the competence and commitment of subordinates” 3 Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. Perspective

4 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Situational Approach Description, cont’d (Hersey & Blanchard, 1969)  Comprised of both a directive dimension & supportive dimension:  Each dimension must be applied appropriately in a given situation  Leaders evaluate employees to assess their competence and commitment to perform a given task 4 Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. Definition

5 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Leadership Styles  Leadership style - the behavior pattern of an individual who attempts to influence others It includes both:  Directive (task) behaviors  Supportive (relationship) behaviors 5 Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. Definition

6 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Leadership Styles – con’t  Directive behaviors - Help group members in goal achievement via one- way communication through:  Giving directions  Establishing goals & how to achieve them  Methods of evaluation & time lines  Defining roles 6 Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. Dimension Definition

7 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Leadership Styles, cont’d.  Supportive behaviors - Assist group members via two-way communication in feeling comfortable with themselves, co-workers, and situation  Asking for input  Problem solving  Praising, listening 7 Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. Dimension Definitions

8 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION S1 - Directing Style  Leader focuses communication on goal achievement  Spends LESS time using supportive behaviors  Leader focuses communication on goal achievement  Spends LESS time using supportive behaviors S 1 Directing High Directive Low Supportive 8 Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.

9 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION S2 - Coaching Style  Leader focuses communication on BOTH goal achievement and supporting subordinates’ socioemotional needs  Requires leader involvement through encouragement and soliciting subordinate input  Leader focuses communication on BOTH goal achievement and supporting subordinates’ socioemotional needs  Requires leader involvement through encouragement and soliciting subordinate input S 2 Coaching High Directive High Supportive 9 Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.

10 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION S3 - Supporting Style  Leader does NOT focus solely on goals; uses supportive behaviors to bring out employee skills in accomplishing the task  Leader delegates day-to- day decision-making control, but is available to facilitate problem solving  Leader does NOT focus solely on goals; uses supportive behaviors to bring out employee skills in accomplishing the task  Leader delegates day-to- day decision-making control, but is available to facilitate problem solving S 3 Supporting High Supportive Low Directive 10 Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.

11 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION S4 - Delegating Style  Leader offers LESS task input and social support; facilitates subordinates’ confidence and motivation in relation to the task  Leader lessens involvement in planning, control of details, and goal clarification  Gives subordinates control and refrains from intervention and unneeded social support  Leader offers LESS task input and social support; facilitates subordinates’ confidence and motivation in relation to the task  Leader lessens involvement in planning, control of details, and goal clarification  Gives subordinates control and refrains from intervention and unneeded social support S 4 Delegating Low Supportive Low Directive S 4 Delegating Low Supportive Low Directive 11 Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.

12 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Development Levels The degree to which subordinates have the competence and commitment necessary to accomplish a given task or activity Definition Dimension Definitions D1 Low Competence High Commitment D2 Some Competence Low Commitment D3 Mod-High Competence Low Commitment D4 High Competence High Commitment D4 D3D2D1 DevelopedDeveloping HighModerateLow Developmental Level of Followers 12 Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.

13 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION  Focus of Situational Approach  Strengths  Criticisms  Application How Does the Situational Approach Work?

14 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Situational Approach  Assumes that subordinates vacillate along the developmental continuum of competence and commitment  Leader effectiveness depends on -  assessing subordinate’s developmental position, and  adapting his/her leadership style to match subordinate developmental level “The Situational approach requires leaders to demonstrate a strong degree of flexibility.” 14 Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. Focus

15 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION How Does The Situational Approach Work? Using SLII model – In any given situation the Leader has 2 tasks: 15 Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. 1st Task2nd Task Diagnose the Situation Identify the developmental level of employee Ask questions like: What is the task subordinates are being asked to perform? How complicated is it? What is their skill set? Do they have the desire to complete the job? Adapt their Style To prescribed Leadership style in the SLII model Leadership style must correspond to the employee’s development level

16 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION How Does The Situational Approach Work? D1 Low Competence High Commitment S1 – Directing High Directive-Low Supportive D4 High Competence High Commitment S4 – Delegating Low Supportive-Low Directive D3 Mod-High Competence Low Commitment S3 – Supporting High Supportive-Low Directive D2 Some Competence Low Commitment S2 – Coaching High Directive-High Supportive 16 Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc. Employee’s Developmental level Leader’s Leadership style

17 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Strengths  Marketplace approval. Situational leadership is perceived as providing a credible model for training employees to become effective leaders.  Practicality. Situational leadership is a straightforward approach that is easily understood and applied in a variety of settings.  Prescriptive value. Situational leadership clearly outlines what you should and should not do in various settings. 17 Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.

18 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Strengths, cont’d.  Leader flexibility. Situational leadership stresses that effective leaders are those who can change their style based on task requirements and subordinate needs.  Differential treatment. Situational leadership is based on the premise that leaders need to treat each subordinate according to his/her unique needs. 18 Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.

19 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Criticisms  Lack of an empirical foundation raises theoretical considerations regarding the validity of the approach.  Further research is required to determine how commitment and competence are conceptualized for each developmental level.  Conceptualization of commitment itself and why it varies is very unclear.  Replication studies fail to support basic prescriptions of situational leadership model. 19 Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.

20 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Criticisms, cont’d.  Does not account for how particular demographics influence the leader- subordinate prescriptions of the model  Fails to adequately address the issue of one- to-one versus group leadership in an organizational setting  Questionnaires are biased in favor of situational leadership 20 Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.

21 LEADERSHIP THEORY AND PRACTICE SIXTH EDITION Application  Often used in consulting because it’s easy to conceptualize and apply  Straightforward nature makes it practical for managers to apply  Breadth of situational approach facilitates its applicability in virtually all types of organizations and levels of management in organizations 21 Northouse - Leadership Theory and Practice, Sixth Edition © 2012 SAGE Publications, Inc.


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