Presentation on theme: "Path-Goal Theory Approach AGED 3153. ~ Marian Anderson Leadership should be born out of the understanding of the needs of those who would be affected."— Presentation transcript:
~ Marian Anderson Leadership should be born out of the understanding of the needs of those who would be affected by it.
Overview Path-goal theory approach perspective Conditions of leadership motivation Leader behaviors Subordinate characteristics Task characteristics How does the PGT approach work?
Path-Goal Theory Explains how leaders can help subordinates along path to goals selecting specific behaviors best suited to subordinate needs and the situation Goals enhanced employee performance/ satisfaction Centers on how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals
Path-Goal Theory Based on research about motivation Premise – expectancy theory Subordinates will be motivated if they believe: a.they are capable of performing their work b.their efforts will be rewarded c.the payoff will be worthwhile Challenge Using leadership style that best meets subordinates’ motivational needs achieved by complimenting or supplementing missing elements
Path-Goal Theory Goal(s)(Productivity) Subordinates Path Obstacle(s) Effective Path-Goal Leadership Defines goals Clarifies path Removes obstacles Provides support
Path-Goal Theory Complex Best understood by identifying large components Motivation Leader behaviors Subordinate characteristics Task characteristics
Conditions of Leadership Motivation Leadership generates motivation when: It increases the number and kinds of payoffs Path to the goal is clear and easily traveled with coaching and direction Obstacles and roadblocks are removed The work itself is personally satisfying
Thought break… Competent supervision Interesting work Enough information Good pay Enough authority Friendly & helpful co-workers Enough help & equipment Opportunity to see results of work Responsibilities clearly defined Opportunity to develop special abilities Motivations of white-collar & blue-collar workers Friendly & helpful co-workers Job security Enough authority Interesting work Enough information Responsibilities clearly defined Good pay Opportunity to see results of work Competent supervision Enough help & equipment White-collar workers Blue-collar workers
Thought break results… 1. Interesting work 2. Opportunity to develop special abilities 3. Enough information 4. Enough authority 5. Enough help & equipment 6. Friendly & helpful co-workers 7. Opportunity to see results of work 8. Competent supervision 9. Responsibilities clearly defined 10. Good pay 1. Good pay 2. Enough help & equipment 3. Job security 4. Enough information 5. Interesting work 6. Friendly & helpful co-workers 7. Responsibilities clearly defined 8. Opportunity to see results of work 9. Enough authority 10. Competent supervision White-collar workers Blue-collar workers
Thought break results… What do you notice about the two lists? Why would pay be at the top of the blue-collar list and the bottom of the white-collar list? How do these factors impact motivation?
Leader Behaviors Directive Leader gives instructions about task Including expectations How it is to be done Time lineSupportive Leader attends human needs Friendly Approachable Treated equalParticipative Leader invites sub. to share in decision making Consults Obtains ideas/opinions Integrates suggestionsAchievement-Oriented Leader challenges sub. to perform Highest level Seeks continuous improvement Confident in sub. capabilities
Subordinate Characteristics Determine how a leader’s behavior will be interpreted by subordinates in a given context. Characteristics to determine satisfaction Need for affiliation Preferences for structure Desires for control Self-perceived level of task ability
Subordinate Characteristics Need for affiliation Friendly and concerned leadership is a source of satisfaction Internal locus of control Subordinates feel in charge of their work Makes them integral part of decision-making process High expectations & need to excel In ambiguous task situations, subordinates feel their efforts will result in effective performance
Task Characteristics Design of subordinates’ task Organization’s formal authority system Primary work group of subordinates
Task Situations Requiring Leader Involvement Unclear and ambiguous Leader needs to provide structure Highly repetitive Leader needs to provide support to maintain subordinate motivation Weak formal authority If formal authority system is weak, the leader needs to assist subordinates by making rules and work requirements clear Non-supportive/weak group norms Leader needs to help build cohesiveness and role responsibility
Path-Goal Theory Matrix Directive Leadership Dogmatic Authoritarian Ambiguous Unclear rules Complex Supportive Leadership Unsatisfied Need affiliation Need human touch Repetitive Unchallenging Mundane & Mechanical Participative Autonomous Need for control Need for clarity Ambiguous Unclear Unstructured Achievement Oriented High Expectations Need to excel Ambiguous Challenging Complex Leader Behavior Group Members Task Characteristics
Path-Goal Theory Approach Complex but also pragmatic approach Provides a set of assumptions about how different leadership styles, subordinate characteristics & work situation affect subordinate motivation Leaders should choose a style that best fits subordinates’ needs and their work
Effective Leaders Tend to subordinates’ needs Help define goals & paths Help confront obstacles
What are the strengths of the path-goal theory?
Strengths Useful theoretical framework For understanding how various leadership behaviors affect the satisfaction of subordinates and their work performance. Integrates motivation Attempts to integrate the motivation principles of expectancy theory. Practical model Underscores and highlights the important ways leaders help subordinates.
What are the weaknesses of the path-goal theory?
Criticisms Complex Incorporates numerous aspect of leadership; consequently, it is difficult to implement. Partially Supported Empirical research studies do not provide full & consistent picture of basic assumptions. Inadequate explanation Of the relationship between leadership behavior and worker motivation. one-way Treats leadership as a one-way event All responsibility placed on leader.
Application Offers valuable insights Can be applied in ongoing settings to improve one’s leadership. Informs leaders about when to be Directive Supportive Participative Achievement oriented Employed by leaders At all organizational levels and for all types of tasks
Summary Focuses on leader motivating followers and helping them over come obstacles to achieve the goal. Must choose a style that fits needs Effective Path-Goal Leadership Defines goals Clarifies path Removes obstacles Provides support Four major components Motivation Leader behavior Subordinate characteristics Task characteristics
Thought break… Read your case study and as a group answer the questions. Questions 1. Describe why Art and Tom appear to be less effective than Carol. 2. How does the leadership of each of the three supervisors affect the motivation of their requective subordinates? 3. If you were consulting with Brako about leadership, what changes and recommendations would you make regarding the supervision of Art, Tom, and Carol?