4Leadership: Theory & Practice A processInvolves influenceOccurs in a group contextInvolves goal attainmentThe leadership literature corroborated our sense that Leadership is a process – not simply a structure or a matter of titles; Leadership involves influence – at least one group – and goals. Maybe a picture will help.Peter G. NorthouseLeadership: Theory & Practice
5A process, influence, a group, and a goal A process, influence, a group, and a goal. There is a lot of purposeful energy at work here. What do you notice in this picture? Who is leading? What kind of influence is taking place? What might the goal be? And look at those faces!
6LEADERSHIP IS LIKE SWIMMING, IT CAN’T BE DONE BY READING ABOUT IT. WHAT IS LEADERSHIP?LEADERSHIP IS LIKE SWIMMING, IT CAN’T BE DONE BY READING ABOUT IT.
7what is leadership? Leaders Manage the Future Managers Manage the Present
8Team LeadershipTeams are organizational groups composed of members who are interdependent, who share common goals, and who must coordinate their activities to accomplish those goals.Sounds like a Coordinated School Health Program to me.
9Accomplishing GoalsBegins with the leader’s mental model of the situation.The mental model reflects not only the components of the entire health program including programs, policies, and services but also the various goals and objectives confronting each district health committee or internal disciplinary team. It also encompasses the environmental and organizational contingencies that define the larger context of school health program. The leader develops a model of what the team goal is and what strategies might be successful in this context, given the environmental and organizational constraints and resources (Zaccaro et.al., 2001, p. 462).Within this perspective, leadership behavior is seen as team-based problem solving, in which the leader attempts to achieve team goals by analyzing the internal and external situation and then selecting and implementing the appropriate strategies to ensure team effectiveness (Fleishman et.al., 1991).
10Functions of an Effective Team Leader Build the teamFoster and promote positive relationships among team membersFocus on the task at hand
11TasksSTART BY DOING WHAT IS NECESSARY, THEN WHAT IS POSSIBLE, AND SUDDENLY YOU’RE DOING THE IMPOSSIBLE. Francis of Assisi
12Developing an Effective Team Create a positive climateSolve interpersonal problemsSatisfy members’ needsDevelop cohesion amongteam members
13Achieving the Task Outline a plan Get the resources Make decisions Solve problemsAdapt to changes
14Teams that have clear goals and standards, effective structure, and efficient decision making will have higher task accomplishment.
15Teams that can manage conflict, collaborate well together, and build commitment will have good relationships.
16Teams that are well connected to and protected from their environment will also be more productive.
17To be an effective leader, one needs to respond with the action that is required of the situation.
18Leadership is About Making Well-Informed Decisions
19Leadership Decisions Monitor or take action Determine if the issue is related to the task or to the people (relational)Act internally or externally
20Diagnosing Group Deficiencies McGrath’s Critical Leadership FunctionsMonitorActionDiagnosing Group Deficiencies1Taking Remedial Action2InternalForecasting Environmental Changes3Preventing Deleterious Changes4Source: McGrath’s critical leadership functions as cited in “leading Groups in Organizations,” by J.R. Hackman and R.E. Walton, 1986 in P.S. Goodman & Associates (Eds.), Designing Effective Work Groups (p. 76). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.External
21Decision 1 Should I monitor the situation or act?
22If you Choose to Monitor…………. Seek information to understand the current state of team functioning (internal & external)Interview team membersQuery others outside the teamSurvey stakeholdersAssess group outcomesOrganize, analyze, and interpret the information
23Decision 2: Should I Intervene internally or externally?
24Decision 3: If I choose to intervene internally, should I intervene to meet task or relational needs?
25Relational Task Coaching Collaborating Managing conflict Building commitmentSatisfying needsModeling principlesTaskGoal FocusingRestructuringFacilitating decision- makingTrainingQuality ControlInternal Relational ActionsCoaching team members ininterpersonal skillscollaboration (including, involving)Managing conflict & power issues (avoiding confrontation, questioning ideas)Building commitment and esprit de corps (being optimistic, innovating, envision, socializing, rewarding, recognizing)Satisfying individual member needs (trusting, supporting, advocating)Modeling ethical and principled practices (being fair, consistent, normative)Internal Task Leadership ActionsGoal focusing (clarifying, gaining agreement)Structuring for results (planning, vision, organizing, clarifying roles, delegating)Facilitating decision-making (informing, controlling, coordinating, mediating, synthesizing, issue focussing)Training in task skills (educating, developing)Quality Control = assessing team and individual performance, confronting inadequate performance
26Environmental Leadership Actions Networking (gather information, increase influence)Advocating and representing the team to the communityNegotiating with Administration to secure necessary resources, support and recognition for the teamBuffering team members from distractionsAssessing environmental indicators of team’s effectiveness (surveys, evaluations, performance indicators)Sharing relevant environmental information with the team.
27Conditions of Group Effectiveness Clear, engaging directionEnabling structureEnabling contextAdequate material resourcesExpert Coaching
28Characteristics of Team Excellence Clear, Elevating GoalSource: Larson & LaFasto, 1989
29Characteristics of Team Excellence Results Driven StructureSource: Larson & LaFasto, 1989
30Characteristics of Team Excellence Competent Team MembersSource: Larson & LaFasto, 1989
31Characteristics of Team Excellence Unified CommitmentSource: Larson & LaFasto, 1989
32Characteristics of Team Excellence Collaborative ClimateSource: Larson & LaFasto, 1989
33Characteristics of Team Excellence Standards of ExcellenceSource: Larson & LaFasto, 1989
34Characteristics of Team Excellence External Support & RecognitionSource: Larson & LaFasto, 1989
35Characteristics of Team Excellence Principled LeadershipLeadership is the central driver of team effectiveness, influencing the team through four sets of processes: cognitive motivational, affective, and integration.Cognitively the leader helps the team understand the challenges confronting the team.Motivationally, the leader helps the team become cohesive and capable by setting high performance standards and helping the group to achieve them.Affectively the leader helps the team handle stressful circumstances by providing clear goals, assignments, and strategies.Integratively, the leader matches members’ skills to roles and provides clear performance strategies, monitors feedback and adapts to environmental changes.Source: Larson & LaFasto, 1989 cited in Leadership: Theory and Practice byPeter G. Northouse (4th ed.)