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Grammar Level 3: Phrases A phrase is like a flying formation of birds; it is something made up of some things. It is a part of speech made of some words.

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Presentation on theme: "Grammar Level 3: Phrases A phrase is like a flying formation of birds; it is something made up of some things. It is a part of speech made of some words."— Presentation transcript:

1 Grammar Level 3: Phrases A phrase is like a flying formation of birds; it is something made up of some things. It is a part of speech made of some words. A phrase is not a complete idea, because it is a group of words which contains no subject/predicate set and which only acts as a single part of speech. In other words, a phrase is an elaboration. A phrase is like a flying formation of birds; it is something made up of some things. It is a part of speech made of some words. A phrase is not a complete idea, because it is a group of words which contains no subject/predicate set and which only acts as a single part of speech. In other words, a phrase is an elaboration.

2 Phrases and Clauses Difference between a phrase and a clause: Both phrases and clauses are groups of words, but a clause contains both a subject and a predicate, and a phrase does not. Example: I jumped (clause) in the boat (phrase) Difference between a phrase and a clause: Both phrases and clauses are groups of words, but a clause contains both a subject and a predicate, and a phrase does not. Example: I jumped (clause) in the boat (phrase)

3 PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES

4 What is a PHRASE? A phrase is a group of words that acts as a single part of speech (like an adjective) that does not contain both a subject and a verb. It is a fragment of a sentence, so it cannot express an idea on its own. After midnight on the roof with a Ukranian bullfighter

5 What’s a PHRASE? Egor's mother was dancing. After midnight, Egor's mother was dancing. After midnight, Egor's mother was on the roof dancing. After midnight, Egor's mother was on the roof dancing with a Ukranian bullfighter.

6 What’s a PHRASE? Felcity stared. Surprised by the intensity of her disgust, Felicity stared. Surprised by the intensity of her disgust, Felicity stared at the cockroach. Surprised by the intensity of her disgust, Felicity stared at the cockroach scurrying across her omelet.

7 Prepositions Most prepositions are difficult to define: of, in, off, by, through, between, etc.

8 Most of the time, prepositions indicate location

9 Prepositional Phrases Prepositional Phrases function as adjectives or adverbs in a sentence. They are formed like this: preposition + optional modifiers + noun, pronoun, or gerund (running) Example: over the rainbow (over = preposition) + (the = article) + (rainbow = noun)

10 Prepositional Phrases In the beginning Before the fall After the brutal fight At school Down the aisle Across the street Inside your ear Outside the house Between two girls By chewing Behind the scenes On the wooden table By the sea Under the couch In the beginning Before the fall After the brutal fight At school Down the aisle Across the street Inside your ear Outside the house Between two girls By chewing Behind the scenes On the wooden table By the sea Under the couch Around the bend Down in the sand trap Into the dark woods Against the wind Near the mouse Through the tunnel To school Like Larry’s uncle Except my friend Over the rainbow Up the rough river Without a paddle With anger Toward the door Around the bend Down in the sand trap Into the dark woods Against the wind Near the mouse Through the tunnel To school Like Larry’s uncle Except my friend Over the rainbow Up the rough river Without a paddle With anger Toward the door

11 Notice – prepositional phrases usually end with a noun or pronoun, which is the OBJECT of the preposition After the brutal fight Inside your wax-filled ear Outside the blue house Between two girls Beside you With me After the brutal fight Inside your wax-filled ear Outside the blue house Between two girls Beside you With me

12 A prepositional phrase can open a sentence Without help, Janie made this message for Santa. Notice: the comma offsets the prepositional phrase 1)Is this prepositional phrase working as an adjective or adverb? 2)What is the object of the preposition?

13 A prepositional phrase can close a sentence We ate corn dogs and drank root beer floats after the baseball game. Notice NO comma is needed 1)Is this prepositional phrase working as an adjective or adverb? 2)What is the object of the preposition?

14 A prepositional phrase can split the main subject and verb All the puppies, except those that had been trained, pooped everywhere! Notice: commas offset the prepositional phrase 1)Is this prepositional phrase working as an adjective or adverb? 2)What is the object of the preposition?

15 A sentence can have consecutive prepositional phrases We saw this holiday tree in the mall, on some guy’s head )Are these prepositional phrase working as adjectives or adverbs? 2)What are the objects of the prepositions?

16 A sentence can have consecutive prepositional phrases In grandma’s attic, under the window, in a cardboard box between two garbage cans, we found these scary Santa Clauses )Are these prepositional phrase working as adjectives or adverbs? 2)What are the objects of the prepositions?

17 Prepositional phrases can be used within other phrases My aunt and uncle, the goofballs in this picture, love immature shenanigans. “the goofballs in this picture” is what type of phrase? So… “in this picture” is a prepositional phrase within an appositive phrase! 1)Is this prepositional phrase working as an adjective or adverb? 2)What is the object of the preposition?


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