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Mrs. Malic 8 th Grade.  Grammar is a way of thinking about language!!! (Write this down!! !)

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Presentation on theme: "Mrs. Malic 8 th Grade.  Grammar is a way of thinking about language!!! (Write this down!! !)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Mrs. Malic 8 th Grade

2  Grammar is a way of thinking about language!!! (Write this down!! !)

3  Parts of Speech (shows us each word):What is the word doing?  Parts of Sentence (architecture of the idea): What is being said about what?  Phrases (groups of words pretending to be a single part of speech): What part of speech is this group of words doing?  Clauses (shows if more than one idea is drawn into the sentences design): How many different ideas are connected together in this sentence?

4  Noun  Pronoun  Adjective  Verb  Adverb  Preposition  Conjunction  Interjection


6  Person, place or thing  Proper noun: Capitalized  Common noun: Not capitalized  Possessive noun: words that would normally be nouns, but are used as adjectives to modify a noun Example: The dog's collar is too large. The word "dog's" is the possessive noun. It tells you that the noun "collar" belongs to the dog

7  A word that takes the place of a noun

8  The pronoun’s antecedent is the noun the pronoun replaces.  Example: Jack walked in the room and then he sat down.

9  We use them to make subjects. They may be used as subjects of clauses and as subject complements. They are not to be used as objects.

10  Singular  First Person: I  Second Person: You  Third Person: He, she, it  Write down and memorize!  Plural  First Person: We  Second Person: You  Third Person: They  Write down and memorize!

11  They are pronouns that must be used as direct objects, indirect objects or objects of the preposition.

12  Singular:  First Person: Me  Second Person: You  Third Person: Him, Her, it  Write down and memorize!  Plural  First Person: us  Second Person: You  Third Person: Them  Write down and memorize!

13  A subject is a subject, and an object is an object.  Any part of a sentence called a subject uses a subject pronoun. (subject of a clause or subject complement)  Any part of a sentence called an object uses an object pronoun. (direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition)

14  Possessive Pronouns: (show possession)  My, your, his, her, its, our and their.  Possessive case pronouns do not require an apostrophe!!!!  Interrogative pronoun: (Used to interrogate)  Who, whose, whom, which, what  Demonstrative Pronouns: (Used to demonstrate)  This, that, these, those

15  Modify means to change  Example: Think of a frozen summit.  Now think of a political summit.

16 Adjective is part of a binary system. The presence of an adjective implies the presence of a noun or pronoun.

17  Positive: Good  Comparative: Better  Superlative: Best

18 AA  An  The

19  A word that shows action, being or links a subject to a subject complement.  Tells what the noun does or is  Action verb: might show an action on a direct object  Linking verb: might link the subject to a subject complement

20  Verb is saying that the noun did something or that the noun is something.  ***Verbs are the core of everything we say about everything!!!!

21 Infinitive:Present participle:  To do, to go, to think, to dream Past: did, went, thought, dreamed  Doing, going, thinking, dreaming, ascending Past Participle: done, gone, thought, dreamed

22 Memorize in order to use correctly.  To shrink  Shrinking  Shrank  Shrunk  To write  Writing  Wrote  Written

23  Definition: an action verb that acts on a direct object  Example: The harpoon hit Moby Dick.

24  An active verb is an action verb that shows the subject acting.  Example: John discussed the problem.  A passive voice verb is an action verb that shows the subject being acted upon.  Example: The problem was discussed.  Passive voice tends to leave out important information. (Who discussed the problem?)

25  Active Voice: The meteor struck the ship.  Passive Voice: The ship was struck by the meteor.  Active Voice: The Literary Society presented Dickens the award.  Passive Voice: Dickens was presented with an award.

26  Writers of scientific papers often prefer passive voice and past tense in order to describe the results of experiments and scientific investigations.  With literary and historical figures, passive voice should be avoided.

27  Six Verb Tenses:  Present  Past  Future  Present Perfect  Past Perfect  Future Perfect

28  Present  Past  Future  Present Perfect  Past Perfect  Future Perfect  I protest  I protested  I will (shall) protest  I have protested  I had protested  I will (shall) have protested

29  Why are they called perfect?  The three perfect tenses are called perfect because the word perfect comes from the Latin perficere, meaning: “to finish.”  The perfect tenses are the tenses of things that are finished.  Finished in the past, finished in the present or finished in the future.

30  Parallelism in tense means sticking to the tense you are using.  Keeping verb tenses parallel is good writing technique.  Example: I went home, picked up the apple, threw it through the window, and laughed. (all past tense)

31  Keep parts of speech parallel  Example: John was tall and handsome (adj)  Example: John was tall and an athlete (adj and noun)  Don’t forget the magic 3!!!

32  Insert picture here

33  Only action verbs are transitive and intransitive, active or passive  Those terms do not apply to linking verbs!

34  An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective or adverb.  Beware of adverbs! Do not overuse due to your lack of vocabulary!  Example: The very tall, gigantic statue vs. The colossus statue.

35  “The adverb is not your friend.”  Stephen King  What do you think he means?  Sometimes a modifier will backfire, especially when overused. One example is the adverb very. The adverb very often has the effect of weakening the sentence by filling it with empty space.

36  The preposition shows a relationship between its object and another word in the sentence.  Prepositions show relationship between time (before, during, after), space (in, on, beside, around), and direction (to, from, toward).

37  Prepositions show where two things are located in relationship to each other.  Prepositions give language its geometry.  They are the x, y, z coordinates for the mind.

38  A word that joins two words or two groups of words.  Coordinating conjunctions co-ordinate: Join two words or groups of words of similar importance.  Memorize because you need to know in order to identify and punctuate compound sentences!!!

39  And  But  Or  Nor  For  So  Yet

40  Subordinate conjunctions join unequals  They join something of lesser importance to something of greater importance  Memorize for use with complex sentences!!!  If, as, since, when, because

41  Multiple word conjunctions:  Either/or  Neither/nor  Example: Either you or I will arrive.

42  Conjunctive adverbs are conjunctions that act both as adverbs and as conjunctions.  However, furthermore, moreover, nevertheless, accordingly, and therefore.

43  A word that shows emotion but has no grammar function.  The only part of speech that does not participate in a relationship with other parts of speech.  Examples: oh, ugh, oof, wow, yes, not, oops.

44  Nouns: name things  Pronouns: make language fast  Verbs: make events and equations  Adjectives and Adverbs: adjust nouns and verbs  Prepositions: show relationships of physics and  3-D ness  Conjunctions: combine  Interjections: emote

45  All other parts of speech provide elaborations and variations.  There are two main kinds of words: noun and verb  All other six parts of speech play supporting roles


47  A sentence is a group of words that contains a subject and its predicate, and makes a complete thought.  When we study parts of the sentence, we are studying the structure of thought itself.  The sentence is the mind, in language.

48  Simple Subject: The noun or subject pronoun that the sentence is about.  Complete Subject: the simple subject and all of its modifiers.  Compound Subject: more than one noun or pronoun used as a double subject of the same clause (Example: Physics and astronomy are my favorite subjects.)  (Compound subjects using and are plural. Compound subjects using or are singular. Example: John and Jim are here. John or Jim is here.)

49  The verb and other words that are about the subject.  The side of the sentence that says something about the subject.  Simple Predicate: the verb  Complete Predicate: everything that is said about the subject  Example: Hamlet went over to the crater and gathered three bags of comet dust.

50  Compound verb: When the stars threw down their spears and watered heaven with their tears…  Simple sentence and simple predicate is always present as a nucleus of an idea!!!!

51  A noun or object pronoun that receives the action of the action verb.  When there is a direct object we call the action verb transitive (remember from verbs!)  Subject pronouns may not be used as direct objects. (Remember, a subject is a subject and only and object is an object!)  The direct object is the object of direct action.  Example: We hold these truths to be self- evident.

52  Focus on the difference between the direct object and subject complements (you will learn soon about these)  Action verbs go with direct objects  Linking verbs go with subject complements

53  A noun or object pronoun that is indirectly affected by the action verb and that is located between the action verb and the direct object.  Structure: S-AV-IO-DO  Indirect object is indirectly affected by the action verb’s action on the direct object.  If there is an indirect object, there MUST be a direct object, and so the action verb is still transitive.

54  A noun, subject pronoun, or adjective that is linked to the subject by a linking verb and tells more about the subject.  The subject complement, in a sense, renames the subject.  Example: Gauguin was Van Gogh’s friend.  Subject complement makes our knowledge of the subject more complete.  Only a subject pronoun can be a subject complement, because a subject is a subject!

55  Predicate nominative: a subject complement that is a noun or subject pronoun. Example: It was she and I who came to visit.  Predicate adjective: a subject complement made out of an adjective. Example: I am sleepy.

56  If the verb is ACTION, then  Do not look for a subject complement  Look for a direct object  If you find a direct object, then look for an indirect object If the verb is LINKING, then  Do not look for a direct object  Look for a subject complement


58  The SUBJECT of the verb and the SUBJECT complement use SUBJECT pronouns  The direct OBJECT and the indirect OBJECT use OBJECT pronouns  The OBJECT of the preposition and the OBJECTS of the verbals also use OBJECT pronouns


60  A group of words without a subject and its predicate that acts like a single part of speech.  A phrase is like a flying formation of birds: it is something made of some things.  A phrase is not a complete idea because it is a group of words that contain no subject/predicate set and only acts as a single part of speech

61  Both phrases and clauses are groups of words, but a clause contains both a subject and its predicate, a phrase does not.  I jumped is a clause  In the boat is only a phrase  Phrases are found inside clauses; they are part of clauses.  Clauses have subjects and predicates. Phrases don’t.

62  An appositive is an interrupting definition.  It may consist of only one word, or it may consist on an entire phrase.  We usually enclose appositives and appositive phrases in commas, unless they are exceptionally short and clear by themselves.  Example: Botticelli, the Renaissance painter, painted angels.  My friend Hamlet is a woodworking artist.

63  A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and concludes with the object of the preposition.  The preposition relates its object to another word in the sentence.  Example: the dog in the boat, the preposition in shows a spatial relationship between its object boat and the noun dog.

64  Prepositional phrases behave as modifiers; that is, they act like big adjectives or big adverbs.  Example: The dog in the boat barked.  In the boat acts as an adjective to modify the noun dog.

65  The object of the preposition is the thing that the preposition relates to something else.  It must be a noun or object pronoun!!!  (Because a subject is a subject and an object is an object)  Example: The letter is for him and me.  She and I went with you and him.  I asked a question about her and us.

66  Adjective prepositional phrases: Prepositional phrases that modify nouns or pronouns should be placed immediately after the noun or pronoun they modify.  Otherwise, the phrase will be understood to modify the verb.

67  A verb form used as a different part of speech.  A verbal is not a verb; it is a former verb doing something else.  Gerunds, participles and infinitives are three kinds of verbals.  Verbals are nouns, adjectives or adverbs made out of verbs.

68  A noun made from a –ing verb.  Gerund phrase: a gerund is a noun made out of an –ing verb or an –ing berb made into a noun.  Subjects and objects may be made out of gerunds or gerund phrases.’  Examples: Thinking is fun. Thinking quickly is fun. I quit joking.

69  An adjective made out of a verb.  An –ing, -ed, or –en verb made into an adjective.  Participles always act as adjectives to modify nouns or pronouns.  Example: The river was so swollen.

70  A noun or modifier made from the to- form of the verb.  Infinitive phrase: an infinitive is a general form of the verb made into a noun, adjective, or adverb.  Usually expressed by beginning with the word to: to think, to dream, to snorkel

71  We think of an infinitive as one word.  Avoid split infinitives: splitting an infinitive means inserting an adverb between the two words of the infinitive.  Example: to see (infinitive)  to vividly see (split infinitive)  to see vividly (better word choice)

72  Phrases are groups of words that cluster together in order to act as a single part of speech.  Prepositional phrases are modifiers that act as adjectives or adverbs.  Appositive phrases are interrupting definitions so they are adjectives.

73  Verbal phrases are based on verbs that have been adopted to become other parts of speech. Participles: verbals that act as adjectives. Infinitives: verbals that are nouns or modifiers that begin with to. Gerunds: verbals ending in ing and acting as nouns. Can be the subject of a sentence or a direct object. ***The object of verbals must be object pronouns.


75  A group of words that contains a subject and its predicate  Two types: independent clause: a clause that makes sense independently  dependent clause: a clause that does not make sense unless it is paired with an independent clause. (Sometimes called subordinating clauses often begin with subordinating conjunctions.)

76  Adjective dependent clause: A dependent clause used as an adjective  Adjective clauses begin with relative pronouns.  The man who followed you turned left.  Adverb dependent clause: adverb clauses are dependent clauses that act as adverbs. Usually begin with subordinate conjunctions.  Noun clauses: dependent clauses that act as nouns

77  Dependent clauses can not be used as sentences by themselves; they depend on an independent clause for meaning.  Dependent clauses may be placed before, after, or even in the middle of an independent clause.

78  A clause has both a subject and predicate, like a sentence, but a sentence always has a complete thought, whereas a clause might be incomplete.  A sentence can consist of several clauses.  Every sentence has at least one independent clause in it but not every clause is a sentence because a dependent clause does not make a complete thought—it is dependent upon an independent clause.


80  Simple sentence: consist of one independent clause  Compound sentence: a sentence compounded of two or more independent clauses  Complex sentence: a sentence that consists of an independent clause and a dependent clause.  Compound-complex sentence: a sentence that contains both complex and compound clause structures. (Two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause)

81  I, cc I (comma before coordinating conjunction in compound sentence)  I;I (semicolon between independent clauses if no coordinating conjunction)  ID (no comma after independent clause in complex sentence)  D,I (comma after dependent clause in complex sentence)

82  Joining two independent clauses with a comma (I,I)  To correct this error, either insert a coordinating conjunction after the comma, or change the comma to a semicolon.

83  Declarative sentence: sentence that declares (states) Example: I will.  Interrogative sentence: sentence that interrogates (asks) Example: Do I dare eat a peach?  Imperative sentence: sentence that commands Example: Do not go gentle into that good night.  Exclamatory sentence: sentence that exclaims. Example: I will!

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