2What is grammar????Grammar is a way of thinking about language!!! (Write this down!! !)
3Four Levels of GrammarParts of Speech (shows us each word):What is the word doing?Parts of Sentence (architecture of the idea): What is being said about what?Phrases (groups of words pretending to be a single part of speech): What part of speech is this group of words doing?Clauses (shows if more than one idea is drawn into the sentences design): How many different ideas are connected together in this sentence?
4Parts of Speech (Eight kinds of words) NounPronounAdjectiveVerbAdverbPrepositionConjunctionInterjection
6Noun Person, place or thing Proper noun: Capitalized Common noun: Not capitalizedPossessive noun: words that would normally be nouns, but are used as adjectives to modify a noun Example: The dog's collar is too large. The word "dog's" is the possessive noun. It tells you that the noun "collar" belongs to the dog
8Antecedent The pronoun’s antecedent is the noun the pronoun replaces. Example: Jack walked in the room and then he sat down.
9Subject Pronouns:We use them to make subjects. They may be used as subjects of clauses and as subject complements. They are not to be used as objects.
10Subject Pronouns: Singular First Person: I Second Person: You Third Person: He, she, itWrite down and memorize!PluralFirst Person: WeSecond Person: YouThird Person: TheyWrite down and memorize!
11Object Pronouns:They are pronouns that must be used as direct objects, indirect objects or objects of the preposition.
12Object Pronouns:Singular:First Person: MeSecond Person: YouThird Person: Him, Her, itWrite down and memorize!PluralFirst Person: usSecond Person: YouThird Person: ThemWrite down and memorize!
13Important rule!!! A subject is a subject, and an object is an object. Any part of a sentence called a subject uses a subject pronoun. (subject of a clause or subject complement)Any part of a sentence called an object uses an object pronoun. (direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition)
14More Pronouns Possessive Pronouns: (show possession) My, your, his, her, its, our and their.Possessive case pronouns do not require an apostrophe!!!!Interrogative pronoun: (Used to interrogate)Who, whose, whom, which, whatDemonstrative Pronouns: (Used to demonstrate)This, that, these, those
15Adjective: A word that modifies a noun or pronoun. Modify means to changeExample: Think of a frozen summit.Now think of a political summit.
16Adjective is part of a binary system Adjective is part of a binary system. The presence of an adjective implies the presence of a noun or pronoun.
17Three degrees of adjectives Positive: GoodComparative: BetterSuperlative: Best
18Articles: Noun alerts, they signal that a noun is about to appear.
19VerbA word that shows action, being or links a subject to a subject complement.Tells what the noun does or isAction verb: might show an action on a direct objectLinking verb: might link the subject to a subject complement
20Important!!!Verb is saying that the noun did something or that the noun is something.***Verbs are the core of everything we say about everything!!!!
21Principal parts of the verb To do, to go, to think, to dreamPast: did, went, thought, dreamedDoing, going, thinking, dreaming, ascendingPast Participle: done, gone, thought, dreamedInfinitive:Present participle:
22Irregular Verbs To shrink Shrinking Shrank Shrunk To write Writing WroteWrittenMemorize in order to use correctly.Memorize in order to use correctly.
23Transitive VerbDefinition: an action verb that acts on a direct objectExample: The harpoon hit Moby Dick.
24Active and Passive Voice An active verb is an action verb that shows the subject acting.Example: John discussed the problem.A passive voice verb is an action verb that shows the subject being acted upon.Example: The problem was discussed.Passive voice tends to leave out important information. (Who discussed the problem?)
25More Examples: Active Voice: The meteor struck the ship. Passive Voice: The ship was struck by the meteor.Active Voice: The Literary Society presented Dickens the award.Passive Voice: Dickens was presented with an award.
26When is Passive Voice useful??? Writers of scientific papers often prefer passive voice and past tense in order to describe the results of experiments and scientific investigations.With literary and historical figures, passive voice should be avoided.
27Time makes verbs tense… Six Verb Tenses:PresentPastFuturePresent PerfectPast PerfectFuture Perfect
28Examples of tenses in action PresentPastFuturePresent PerfectPast PerfectFuture PerfectI protestI protestedI will (shall) protestI have protestedI had protestedI will (shall) have protested
29The perfect tenses have finished. Why are they called perfect?The three perfect tenses are called perfect because the word perfect comes from the Latin perficere, meaning: “to finish.”The perfect tenses are the tenses of things that are finished.Finished in the past, finished in the present or finished in the future.
30Parallel Verb TenseParallelism in tense means sticking to the tense you are using.Keeping verb tenses parallel is good writing technique.Example: I went home, picked up the apple, threw it through the window, and laughed. (all past tense)
31Parallelism continued Keep parts of speech parallelExample: John was tall and handsome (adj)Example: John was tall and an athlete (adj and noun)Don’t forget the magic 3!!!
33Remember!!!Only action verbs are transitive and intransitive, active or passiveThose terms do not apply to linking verbs!
34Adverbs An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective or adverb. Beware of adverbs! Do not overuse due to your lack of vocabulary!Example: The very tall, gigantic statue vs. The colossus statue.
35WEAK “The adverb is not your friend.” Stephen King What do you think he means?Sometimes a modifier will backfire, especially when overused. One example is the adverb very. The adverb very often has the effect of weakening the sentence by filling it with empty space.
36PrepositionThe preposition shows a relationship between its object and another word in the sentence.Prepositions show relationship between time (before, during, after), space (in, on, beside, around), and direction (to, from, toward).
37Prepositions continued Prepositions show where two things are located in relationship to each other.Prepositions give language its geometry.They are the x, y, z coordinates for the mind.
38Conjunctions A word that joins two words or two groups of words. Coordinating conjunctions co-ordinate: Join two words or groups of words of similar importance.Memorize because you need to know in order to identify and punctuate compound sentences!!!
40Subordinating Conjunctions Subordinate conjunctions join unequalsThey join something of lesser importance to something of greater importanceMemorize for use with complex sentences!!!If, as, since, when, because
41Correlative Conjunctions Multiple word conjunctions:Either/orNeither/norExample: Either you or I will arrive.
42Conjunctive AdverbsConjunctive adverbs are conjunctions that act both as adverbs and as conjunctions.However, furthermore, moreover, nevertheless, accordingly, and therefore.
43Interjection A word that shows emotion but has no grammar function. The only part of speech that does not participate in a relationship with other parts of speech.Examples: oh, ugh, oof, wow, yes, not, oops.
44Parts of speech simplified Nouns: name thingsPronouns: make language fastVerbs: make events and equationsAdjectives and Adverbs: adjust nouns and verbsPrepositions: show relationships of physics and3-D nessConjunctions: combineInterjections: emote
45The core of every idea is a noun/pronoun and a verb. All other parts of speech provide elaborations and variations.There are two main kinds of words: noun and verbAll other six parts of speech play supporting roles
47What is a sentence anyway? A sentence is a group of words that contains a subject and its predicate, and makes a complete thought.When we study parts of the sentence, we are studying the structure of thought itself.The sentence is the mind, in language.
48SubjectSimple Subject: The noun or subject pronoun that the sentence is about.Complete Subject: the simple subject and all of its modifiers.Compound Subject: more than one noun or pronoun used as a double subject of the same clause (Example: Physics and astronomy are my favorite subjects.)(Compound subjects using and are plural. Compound subjects using or are singular. Example: John and Jim are here. John or Jim is here.)
49Predicate The verb and other words that are about the subject. The side of the sentence that says something about the subject.Simple Predicate: the verbComplete Predicate: everything that is said about the subjectExample: Hamlet went over to the crater and gathered three bags of comet dust.
50Predicate continued:Compound verb: When the stars threw down their spears and watered heaven with their tears…Simple sentence and simple predicate is always present as a nucleus of an idea!!!!
51Direct ObjectA noun or object pronoun that receives the action of the action verb.When there is a direct object we call the action verb transitive (remember from verbs!)Subject pronouns may not be used as direct objects. (Remember, a subject is a subject and only and object is an object!)The direct object is the object of direct action.Example: We hold these truths to be self- evident.
52Remember!!!Focus on the difference between the direct object and subject complements (you will learn soon about these)Action verbs go with direct objectsLinking verbs go with subject complements
53Indirect ObjectA noun or object pronoun that is indirectly affected by the action verb and that is located between the action verb and the direct object.Structure: S-AV-IO-DOIndirect object is indirectly affected by the action verb’s action on the direct object.If there is an indirect object, there MUST be a direct object, and so the action verb is still transitive.
54Subject ComplementA noun, subject pronoun, or adjective that is linked to the subject by a linking verb and tells more about the subject.The subject complement, in a sense, renames the subject.Example: Gauguin was Van Gogh’s friend.Subject complement makes our knowledge of the subject more complete.Only a subject pronoun can be a subject complement, because a subject is a subject!
55More on subject complements: Predicate nominative: a subject complement that is a noun or subject pronoun. Example: It was she and I who came to visit.Predicate adjective: a subject complement made out of an adjective. Example: I am sleepy.
56Logic of sentence analysis!!! If the verb is ACTION, thenDo not look for a subject complementLook for a direct objectIf you find a direct object, then look for an indirect objectIf the verb is LINKING, thenDo not look for a direct objectLook for a subject complement
58Logic of pronoun use:The SUBJECT of the verb and the SUBJECT complement use SUBJECT pronounsThe direct OBJECT and the indirect OBJECT use OBJECT pronounsThe OBJECT of the preposition and the OBJECTS of the verbals also use OBJECT pronouns
60PhrasesA group of words without a subject and its predicate that acts like a single part of speech.A phrase is like a flying formation of birds: it is something made of some things.A phrase is not a complete idea because it is a group of words that contain no subject/predicate set and only acts as a single part of speech
61Difference between phrases and clauses Both phrases and clauses are groups of words, but a clause contains both a subject and its predicate, a phrase does not.I jumped is a clauseIn the boat is only a phrasePhrases are found inside clauses; they are part of clauses.Clauses have subjects and predicates. Phrases don’t.
62Appositive phrases An appositive is an interrupting definition. It may consist of only one word, or it may consist on an entire phrase.We usually enclose appositives and appositive phrases in commas, unless they are exceptionally short and clear by themselves.Example: Botticelli, the Renaissance painter, painted angels.My friend Hamlet is a woodworking artist.
63Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and concludes with the object of the preposition.The preposition relates its object to another word in the sentence.Example: the dog in the boat, the preposition in shows a spatial relationship between its object boat and the noun dog.
64Prepositional phrases Prepositional phrases behave as modifiers; that is, they act like big adjectives or big adverbs.Example: The dog in the boat barked.In the boat acts as an adjective to modify the noun dog.
65Prepositional Phrases The object of the preposition is the thing that the preposition relates to something else.It must be a noun or object pronoun!!!(Because a subject is a subject and an object is an object)Example: The letter is for him and me.She and I went with you and him.I asked a question about her and us.
66Prepositional Phrases Adjective prepositional phrases: Prepositional phrases that modify nouns or pronouns should be placed immediately after the noun or pronoun they modify.Otherwise, the phrase will be understood to modify the verb.
67Verbal A verb form used as a different part of speech. A verbal is not a verb; it is a former verb doing something else.Gerunds, participles and infinitives are three kinds of verbals.Verbals are nouns, adjectives or adverbs made out of verbs.
68Gerund A noun made from a –ing verb. Gerund phrase: a gerund is a noun made out of an –ing verb or an –ing berb made into a noun.Subjects and objects may be made out of gerunds or gerund phrases.’Examples: Thinking is fun. Thinking quickly is fun. I quit joking.
69Participle An adjective made out of a verb. An –ing, -ed, or –en verb made into an adjective.Participles always act as adjectives to modify nouns or pronouns.Example: The river was so swollen.
70Infinitive A noun or modifier made from the to- form of the verb. Infinitive phrase: an infinitive is a general form of the verb made into a noun, adjective, or adverb.Usually expressed by beginning with the word to: to think, to dream, to snorkel
71Infinitive continued to vividly see (split infinitive) We think of an infinitive as one word.Avoid split infinitives: splitting an infinitive means inserting an adverb between the two words of the infinitive.Example: to see (infinitive)to vividly see (split infinitive)to see vividly (better word choice)
72Summary of phrasesPhrases are groups of words that cluster together in order to act as a single part of speech.Prepositional phrases are modifiers that act as adjectives or adverbs.Appositive phrases are interrupting definitions so they are adjectives.
73Summary of phrases continued Verbal phrases are based on verbs that have been adopted to become other parts of speech.Participles: verbals that act as adjectives.Infinitives: verbals that are nouns or modifiers that begin with to.Gerunds: verbals ending in ing and acting as nouns. Can be the subject of a sentence or a direct object.***The object of verbals must be object pronouns.
75Clause A group of words that contains a subject and its predicate Two types: independent clause: a clause that makes sense independentlydependent clause: a clause that does not make sense unless it is paired with an independent clause. (Sometimes called subordinating clauses often begin with subordinating conjunctions.)
76Other type of dependent clauses Adjective dependent clause: A dependent clause used as an adjectiveAdjective clauses begin with relative pronouns.The man who followed you turned left.Adverb dependent clause: adverb clauses are dependent clauses that act as adverbs. Usually begin with subordinate conjunctions.Noun clauses: dependent clauses that act as nouns
77Dependent ClausesDependent clauses can not be used as sentences by themselves; they depend on an independent clause for meaning.Dependent clauses may be placed before, after, or even in the middle of an independent clause.
78Difference between clause and sentence: A clause has both a subject and predicate, like a sentence, but a sentence always has a complete thought, whereas a clause might be incomplete.A sentence can consist of several clauses.Every sentence has at least one independent clause in it but not every clause is a sentence because a dependent clause does not make a complete thought—it is dependent upon an independent clause.
80Four Sentence Structures Simple sentence: consist of one independent clauseCompound sentence: a sentence compounded of two or more independent clausesComplex sentence: a sentence that consists of an independent clause and a dependent clause.Compound-complex sentence: a sentence that contains both complex and compound clause structures. (Two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause)
81Summary of clause punctuation: I, cc I (comma before coordinating conjunction in compound sentence)I;I (semicolon between independent clauses if no coordinating conjunction)ID (no comma after independent clause in complex sentence)D,I (comma after dependent clause in complex sentence)
82Comma splice error Joining two independent clauses with a comma (I,I) To correct this error, either insert a coordinating conjunction after the comma, or change the comma to a semicolon.
83Four purposes of sentence/ideas Declarative sentence: sentence that declares (states) Example: I will.Interrogative sentence: sentence that interrogates (asks) Example: Do I dare eat a peach?Imperative sentence: sentence that commands Example: Do not go gentle into that good night.Exclamatory sentence: sentence that exclaims. Example: I will!